The phase behaviour and phase stability of lipids are of importance in an understanding of the biological functions of cell membranes. Among a variety of physical techniques employed to study the phase behaviour and structural properties of polar lipids, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction have proved to be successful and are the most frequently used methods. Applications involving a combination of the two techniques, particularly when synchrotron radiation is used as the light source of X-ray diffraction, are reviewed in this article.
Authors:C. Chai, S. Ma, X. Mao, K. Liao, and W. Liu
Two different radiochemical procedures were developed: chelate ion resin exchange and amine solvent extraction. Two kinds of new Chinese chelate resins (NANKAI-3926 and BEI-5) and a new longchain primary amine N1923 were compared with the Srafion NMRR and the tertiary amine N235 in absorption performance of noble metals, respectively. Influences of various experimental conditions, e. g. sample digestion, acidity, equilibrium time, as well as elution of noble metals, on analytical sensitivity and chemical yield were discussed. Combining with neutron activation, the radiochemical separation procedures developed were used to determine the noble metal contents in the geological samples from Permian/Triassic boundary in South China.
Authors:J. Carpenter, D. Katayama, L. Liu, W. Chonkaew, and K. Menard
The glass transition of lyophilized materials is normally measured by conventional or temperature modulated differential scanning
calorimetry (TMDSC). However, because of the weakness of these transitions when protein concentrations are high, these techniques
are often unable to detect the glass transition (Tg). High ramp rate DSC, where heating rates of 100 K per min and higher are used, has been shown to be able to detect weak
transitions in a wide range of materials and has been applied to these materials in previous work. Dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA) is also known to be much more sensitive to the presence of relaxations in materials than other commonly used thermal
techniques. The development of a method to handle powders in the DMA makes it now possible to apply this technique to protein
and protein-excipient mixtures. HRR DSC, TMA and DMA were used to characterize the glass transition of lyophilized materials
and the results correlated. DMA is shown to be a viable alternative to HRR DSC and TMA for lyophilized materials.
Authors:J. Liu, H. Xu, W. Shen, X. Pan, and Y. Xiang
Mn2O3/-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method, and the maximum monolayer dispersion capacity or dispersion threshold value of Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3 was determined to be 13.08% from the decomposition mass loss of supported Mn(NO3)2 in the monolayer state. This was compared with the values estimated from a close-packed monolayer model and an interaction model. It was confirmed that the high activities and selectivities of the catalysts for benzoic acid hydrogenation to benzaldehyde are due to the monolayer dispersion of the Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3.
In our invention, FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) dry gas could be used to react with benzene without any special purification, and more than 90% ethylene was converted to ethylbenzene. The phenomenon of carbon deposition over catalyst surface was obvious and leads to a deactivation of catalyst, so it is important to study the behavior of carbon deposition of catalyst during alkylation of benzene. The influence of several factors such as temperature, reaction time, reactant concentration of the amount and the kinetics of carbon deposition were investigated, during which carbon depositing rate equations were obtained for different reactant.
Authors:Y. Wen, S. Lahiri, Z. Qin, X. Wu, and W. Liu
An attempt has been made to develop a radiochemical methodology for the decontamination of a trace amount of radioactive cesium from a bulk amount of natural NaCl by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX). Open chain crown ethers, of amide type, namely, N,N,N",N"-tetraphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (TDD), N,N,N",N"-tetraphenyl-3,6,9-trioxaundecanediamide and N,N"-dinaphthyl-N,N"-diphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (DDD) have been chosen for this purpose. The separation factor between Cs and Na is the highest when 10-4M TDD dissolved in nitrobenzene is used as extractant and 0.4M picric acid at pH 5.0 is used as aqueous phase. About 60% Cs is extracted in this condition in a single run.
This paper presents calorimeter measurement for the thermal decomposition of n-propyl nitrate (NPN), isopropyl nitrate (IPN) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). Similar experimental results of triethylene
glycol dinitrate (tri-EGDN) and tetraethylene glycol dinitrate (tetra-EGDN) are included for comparison. The potential energy
surfaces (PESs) along O-NO2 bond stretch are investigated using the DFT (B3P86, B3PW91 and B3LYP), ab initio Hartree-Fock and PM3 methods. The good coincidence
of experimental with theoretical results indicates that initial stage in the thermal decomposition of five nitrates is only
unimolecular homolytical dissociation of the O-NO2 bonds and the activation energies of thermolysis by DSC correspond to the energies of O-NO2 bond scission of nitrates.
We present a new method to asses the strength of indirect interactions and to indentify candidate keystone species in quantitative food webs. We apply this method to the structural analysis of a host-parasitoid community. The strength and symmetry of indirect interactions between 12 leaf-miner hosts and their 27 hymenopteran parasitoids are quantified. It is shown that (1) quantifying longer pathways helps in determining which species have more important direct or indirect effects on others, (2) a keystone pattern of relative species importance, based on positionality in the interaction network, seems to characterize this community, (3) considering longer pathways results in a characteristic “few strong - many weak” distribution of interaction strength, and (4) between the majority of species pairs the interaction is weakly asymmetrical. We emphasise that a very simple network algebra approach may offer important predictions on both species- and community-level patterns.
Authors:L. Liu, Z. He, W. Ma, J. Liu, X. Xia, and R. Peña
Glutenin subunit alleles at the
locus and their effects on dough properties, pan bread, and dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) qualities were investigated using 106 winter and facultative wheat cultivars and advanced lines. Allele
(42.5%) was the most frequent glutenin subunit, followed by
occurred in only three and six cultivars, respectively. The effect of
was significant forDWCNquality, accounting for up to 16% of the variation, but there were no significant differences between individual
alleles on dough properties and qualities of DWCNand pan bread. Interaction effects
Glu-A1 × Glu-D3
Glu-B1 × Glu-D3
were significant for DWCN quality and loaf volume. More work is needed to understand the effects of
variation on the determination of dough properties and end-use quality.
Authors:H. Wang, D. Cao, W. Chen, D. Liu, B. Liu, and H. Zhang
Wheat kernel morphology is a very important trait for wheat yield improvement. This is the first report of association analysis of kernel morphology traits in wheat breeding lines. In Qinghai, China, the research described here involved genome-wide association analysis in breeding lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat with a mixed linear model to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to kernel morphology. The 8033 effective Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers produced a genetic map of 5901.84 cM with an average density of 1.36 markers/cM. Population structure analysis classified 507 breeding lines into three groups by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked markers. Linkage disequilibrium decay was observed with a map coverage of 2.78 cM. Marker-trait association analysis showed that 15 DArT markers for kernel morphology were detected, located on nine chromosomes, and explained 2.6%–4.0% of the phenotypic variation of kernel area (KA), kernel width (KW), kernel length (KL) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). The marker 1139297 was related to both the KL and KA traits. Only six DArT markers were close to known QTLs. The parent SHW-L1 carried eight favored alleles, while other seven favored alleles were derived from elite common wheat cultivars. These QTLs, identified in elite breeding lines, should help us understand the kernel morphology trait better, and to provide germplasm for breeding new wheat cultivars for Qinghai Province or other regions.