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  • Author or Editor: W. Ye x
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Alpha, beta, and gamma diversity are three fundamental biodiversity components in ecology, but most studies focus only on the scale issues of the alpha or gamma diversity component. The beta diversity component, which incorporates both alpha and gamma diversity components, is ideal for studying scale issues of diversity. We explore the scale dependency of beta diversity and scale relationship, both theoretically as well as by application to actual data sets. Our results showed that a power law exists for beta diversity-area (spatial grain or spatial extent) relationships, and that the parameters of the power law are dependent on the grain and extent for which the data are defined. Coarse grain size generates a steeper slope (scaling exponent z) with lower values of intercept (c), while a larger extent results in a reverse trend in both parameters. We also found that, for a given grain (with varying extent) or a given extent (with varying grain) the two parameters are themselves related by power laws. These findings are important because they are the first to simultaneously relate the various components of scale and diversity in a unified manner.

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Photoinitiating behaviors of oligo(α-aminoketones) (OAK) macrophotoinitiator containing aminoalkylphenone group on free-radical photopolymerization had been investigated by differential photo-calorimetry (DPC). The macrophotoinitiator showed comparative performance with those commercial photoinitiators with lower molecular mass. The effect of photoinitiator concentrations and UV intensity on the polymerization rate was investigated, and the value of exponential factor was found to be 0.5 at the beginning of polymerization, suggesting that the photopolymerization initiated by OAK followed biradical termination mechanism. Photosensitizer isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX) and oxygen severely restricted the polymerization in these systems. Photoinitiators with lower molecular mass showed higher reactivity than those with higher molecular mass.

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A simple and rapid HPLC method using a photodiode array (PDA) detector for the analysis of 3-hydroxycarboplatin and its related complex has been established for the first time. Separation of 3-hydroxycarboplatin and 3-hydroxy-1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (3-HO-cbdca) was carried out on a Phenomenex ODS3 column using an aqueous solution containing 50 mM ammonium acetate and 5 mM sodium 1-octanesulfonate as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.8 mL min−1, the column temperature was 40°C, and the detection wavelength was 230 nm for 3-hydroxycarboplatin and 220 nm for 3-HO-cbdca. Different analytical performance parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, stability of the solution, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and system suitability were determined using the Empower 2 software. The calibration curve of standard 3-hydroxycarboplatin showed good linearity (r = 0.9995) within the range 0.5–1.4 mg mL−1. The method was accurate and precise, with an average accuracy of 100.4% (RSD = 1.53%, n = 9), and the results of the system suitability test showed symmetrical peaks, good resolution (R s), and repeatability. It can be applied to the quality control of 3-hydroxycarboplatin.

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In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Red coleoptile is an easily observed trait in Triticum aestivum and can provide some protection against stress. Here, TaMYB-A1 or TuMYB-A1, homologous to TaMYB-D1, which controls red coleoptile formation in the common wheat cultivar ‘Gy115’, was isolated from eight T. aestivum and 34 T. urartu cultivars. The genome sequence of TaMYB-A1 was 867 bp with an intron of 93 bp, which was similar to the MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in T. aestivum but different from other MYB transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB-A1 had an integrated DNA-binding domain of 102 amino acids and a transcriptional domain of 42 amino acids, which was responsible for regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB-A1 was assigned to the same branch as the MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in a phylogenetic tree. A transient expression analysis showed that TaMYB-A1 induced ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells to synthesize anthocyanin with the help of ZmR. A non-functional allele of TaMYB-a1 existed in common wheat cultivars containing rc-a1. One single nucleotide was deleted 715 bp after the start codon in TaMYB-a1 compared with TaMYB-A1. The deletion caused a frame shift mutation, destroyed the DNA transcription activator domain, and resulted in TaMYB-a1 losing its ability to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells. Those cultivars with functional TaMYB-A1 or TuMYB-A1 have red coleoptiles. The isolation of TaMYB-A1 should aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms of coleoptile traits in T. aestivum.

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Shuganjieyu (SGJY) capsule is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and ion trap mass spectrometry has been established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of SGJY and the multiple constituents of SGJY in rats. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 RRHD column (150 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), while 0.1% formic acid–water and 0.1% formic acid–acetonitrile was used as mobile phase. Mass spectral data were acquired in both positive and negative modes. On the basis of the characteristic retention time (R t) and mass spectral data with those of reference standards and relevant references, 73 constituents from the SGJY and 15 ingredients including 10 original constituents and 5 metabolites from the rat plasma after oral administration of SGJY were identified or tentatively characterized. This study provided helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on SGJY.

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