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  • Author or Editor: W. Zhang x
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Abstract  

A pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis method in conjunction with anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry (PC-INAA-AC) has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of Se. The method consists of repetitions of the irradiation-decay-counting cycles of a sample using the rapid transfer cyclic system at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facility. The 162-keV γ-ray of 77mSe (t 1/2 = 17.4 s) has been found to be highly selective. The precision and detection limits are significantly improved and the total experimental time drastically reduced by this method. Detection limits are between 2 and 9 ng. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated by analyzing a number of nutritional reference materials. The PC-INAA-AC method has been applied for the routine determination of Se to the composites of 135 food samples with values ranging from as low as 1 ng g−1 for tea to 1,045 ng g−1 for organ meats on fresh weight basis.

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To give satisfactory efficiency both for X- and gamma-ray photon, an improved counting system has been developed in CTBT Canadian radioxenon laboratory. The counting system consists of a BEGe detector coupled with a thin carbon fiber window counting cell, that can perform a reliable and efficient radioxenon measurement. A semi-empirical calibration procedure was adopted, which is a combination of experimental measurement and mathematical simulation. Mathematical calibration tool is Monte Carlo simulation software named VGSL. Advanced gamma-spectrum analysis software, named Aatami, was used for gamma-ray peak shape fitting and X-ray multiplets deconvolution. The calculated full energy peak efficiency curve covers from 30 to 700 keV and agrees well with experimental data points within 2%. The efficiency curve can provide radioxenon analysis both for X-rays and gamma-rays with high quality. The efficiency distortion near xenon k-absorption edge of 35 keV, which is caused by high concentrated xenon in the counting cell, is also discussed.

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By using 188Re as a radiotracer, the extraction behavior of Re(VII) by a tertiary amine extractant N-235 from HCl and the back-extraction behavior of Re(VII) by HNO3 and ammonia were studied. A chemical separation procedure, which combined the acid alumina column and solvent extraction was established. The procedure was rapid and efficient for the separation of 186Re from 186W irradiated by 16 MeV deuterons. No-carrier-added 186ReO4 saline solution with high specific volume activity was obtained. The overall recovery yield of 186Re was about 85%.

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Abstract  

Crystal of the complex Ni2L (ClO4)2 was obtained by reaction of Ni(ClO4)2 and macrocyclic ligand H2L, where L2– is the dinucleating macrocycle with two 2,6-di(aminomethyl)-4-methyl phenolate entities combined by the same two lateral chains, –(CH2)2–NH–(CH2)2–, at the amino nitrogens. The thermal decomposition processes of the title complex were studied in a dynamic atmosphere of dry argon using TG-DTG. The kinetic analysis of the first and second thermal decomposition steps were performed via the TG-DTG curves, and the kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG-DTG curves with integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic function was suggested by comparison of the kinetic parameters.

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Summary  

{\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1250\deff0\deflang1038\deflangfe1038\deftab708{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\fprq2\fcharset238{\*\fname Times New Roman;}Times New Roman CE;}} \viewkind4\uc1\pard\f0\fs24 The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) has been working for about ten years on the Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach for treating the nonlinear inverse analysis problem for PGNAA bulk analysis. This approach consists essentially of using Monte Carlo simulation to generate the libraries of all the elements to be analyzed plus any other required libraries. These libraries are then used in the linear Library Least-Squares (LLS) approach with unknown sample spectra to analyze for all elements in the sample. The other libraries include all sources of background which includes: (1) gamma-rays emitted by the neutron source, (2) prompt gamma-rays produced in the analyzer construction materials, (3) natural gamma-rays from K-40 and the uranium and thorium decay chains, and (4) prompt and decay gamma-rays produced in the NaI detector by neutron activation. A number of unforeseen problems have arisen in pursuing this approach including: (1) the neutron activation of the most common detector (NaI) used in bulk analysis PGNAA systems, (2) the nonlinearity of this detector, and (3) difficulties in obtaining detector response functions for this (and other) detectors. These problems have been addressed by CEAR recently and have either been solved or are almost solved at the present time. We have now finished the development of Monte Carlo simulation for all of the libraries except the prompt gamma-ray library from the activation of the NaI detector. We must first determine a treatment for the coincidence schemes for Na and particularly I to complete the Monte Carlo simulation of this last library. \par }

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An allometric analysis of biomass and N mass allocation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under non-shaded (100% of full sunlight) and shaded (30% of full sunlight) treatments were conducted. The allometric slopes and the intercepts were estimated using standardized major axis regression. Results indicated that biomass was preferentially allocated to stems during plant ontogeny, and leaves and roots were isometric when rice seedlings were not shaded. Under shade, however, more biomass was allocated to leaves and stems. N mass allocation was also altered by shading in that more N mass was allocated to the aerial shoots, and plants accumulated less N mass when shaded. Our study revealed that both biomass and N mass were in accordance with the optimal partitioning theory.

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Abstract  

Over 100 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province, China and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc., were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age indirectly. The analytical data were further processed by principal components analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.

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Summary  

Single aerosol particles were analyzed in the ambient air of the center of Shanghai by scanning proton microprobe to obtain characteristic X-ray spectra (micro-PIXE) which were considered to be the fingerprints of these aerosol particles. The origin of the lead-containing particles was identified by the combination of the micro-PIXE spectra with pattern recognition technique. It was found that the most of the lead-containing particles were derived from vehicle exhaust, coal combustion and soil dust.

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