Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA, EC 220.127.116.11) catalyzes an aldol cleavage of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and a reversible aldol condensation. Three candidate genes with 1077bp coding for fructose-bisphosphate aldolase were cloned and sequenced in wheat, barley and rye. These genes could encode 358 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis indicated that wheat, barley and rye FBA genes were conserved with high identity (94.13%), while maize sequence had a 9bp deletion near the 3’ terminal. According to the alignment of 75 amino acid sequences, conserved domains of the FBAs were detected. These conserved domains might be the important functional sites of the FBAs. The cytoplasmic FBAs of wheat, barley and rye were clustered together, and the cluster was close to maize and rice FBAs. Nine peptides of the FBAs and the last amino acid Tyr (necessary for preference for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate over fructose 1-phosphate) were most conserved in plants, animals and algae. Current findings suggested that the FBAs could be divided into three main subgroups: plant cytoplasmic FBA, plant chloroplastic FBA and animal FBA. These results also indicated that the active and binding sites of FBAs had rare variations during the long-term evolution.
Earthworms were collected from agricultural fields in Admont, Graz, Piber and Gumpenstein, Austria. Six earthworm samples were investigated with INAA and with ICP-MS in parallel for the element concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn. With both techniques 14 elements were analysed in a wide concentration range (ng/g to mg/g) GF-AAS and HG-AAS were used for verification of some element concentrations. A comparison of analytical results between INAA and ICP-MS was discussed. In general, good agreement between ICP-MS and INAA was obtained, the relative difference values of most of the elements are within ±20% range, however, a methodical error for the determination of Hg by ICP-MS was found.
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid determination of functional genes in wheat plants. ERECTA genes are reported to regulate stomatal pattern of plants, and manipulation of TaERECTA (a homologue of ERECTA in bread wheat) is a potential route for investigating stomatal development. Here, the leucine-rich repeat domains (LRRs) and transmembrane domains of TaERECTA were selected to gain BSMV:ER-LR and BSMV:ER-TM constructs, respectively, targeting TaERECTA for silencing in wheat cultivars ‘Bobwhite’ and ‘Cadenza’, to identify the function of TaERECTA on stomatal patterns. The results showed that reduced expression of TaERECTA caused an increased stomatal and epidermal cell density by average 13.5% and 3.3%, respectively, due to the significantly reduced size of leaf epidermal and stomatal cells, and this led to an increase in stomatal conductance. These suggest that modulation of TaERECTA offers further opportunities in stomatal engineering for the adaptation of photosynthesis in wheat.
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders are used to initiate other explosives. During long-term storage, changes in powder
properties can cause changes in the initiation performance. Changes in the morphology and surface area of aging powders are
observed due to sublimation and growth of PETN crystals through coarsening mechanisms, (e.g. Ostwald ripening, sintering,
etc.). In order to alleviate the sublimation of PETN crystals under service conditions, stabilization methods such as thermal
cycling and doping with certain impurities during or after the crystallization of PETN have been proposed.
In this report we present our work on the effect of impurities on the morphology and activation energy of the PETN crystals.
The pure and impurity doped crystals of PETN were grown from supersaturated acetone solution by solvent evaporation technique
at room temperature. The difference in the morphology of the impurity-doped PETN crystal compared to pure crystal was examined
by optical microscopy. The changes in the activation energies and the evaporation rates are determined by thermogravimetry
(TG). Our activation energies of evaporation agree with earlier reported enthalpies of vaporization. The morphology and activation
energy of PETN crystals doped with Ca, Na, and Fe cations are similar to that for pure PETN crystal, whereas the Zn-ion-doped
PETN crystals have different morphology and decreased activation energy.
The sorption of Eu(III) on calcareous soil as a function of pH, humic acid (HA), temperature and foreign ions was investigated
under ambient conditions. Eu(III) sorption on soil was strongly pH dependent in the observed pH range. The effect of ionic
strength was significant at pH < 7, and not obvious at pH > 8. The type of salt cation used had no visible influence on Eu(III)
uptake on soil, however at low pH values, the influence of anions was following the order: Cl− ≈ NO3− > ClO4−. In the presence of HA, the sorption edge obviously shifted about two pH units to the lower pH, whilst in range of pH 6–7,
the sorption of Eu(III) decreased with increasing pH because a considerable amount of Eu(III) was present as humate complexes
in aqueous phase, then increased again at pH > 11. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) on soil mainly formed
outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange below pH ~7; whereas inner-sphere complexes and precipitation of Eu(OH)3(s) may play main role above pH ~8.
A preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC) method for the isolation and purification of C6-C2 natural alcohol and benzyl ethanol from Forsythia suspensa was successfully established. Cornoside, forsythenside F, forsythiaside, and acteoside were rapidly obtained for the first time by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system ethyl acetate-n-butanol-methanol-water (5:1:0.5:5, υ/υ) in one-step separation. The purities of them were all above 97% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the combination of ESI-MS and NMR analysis confirmed the chemical structures of the four compounds.
N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine (DMHA) is a novel salt-free reducing reagent used in the separation U from Pu and Np in the reprocessing
of power spent fuel. This paper reports on the radiolysis of aqueous DMHA solution and its radiolytic liquid organics. Results
show that the main organics in irradiated DMHA solution are N-methyl hydroxylamine, formaldehyde and formic acid. The analysis
of DMHA and N-methyl hydroxylamine were performed by gas chromatography, and that of formaldehyde was performed by ultraviolet–visible
spectrophotometry. The analysis of formic acid was performed by ion chromatography. For 0.1–0.5 mol L−1 DMHA irradiated to 5–25 kGy, the residual DMHA concentration is (0.07–0.47) mol L−1, the degradation rate of DMHA at 25 kGy is 10.1–30.1%. The concentrations of N-methylhydroxylamine, formaldehyde and formic acid are (8.25–19.36) × 10−3, (4.20–36.36) × 10−3 and (1.35–10.9) × 10−4 mol L−1, respectively. The residual DMHA concentration decreases with the increasing dose. The concentrations of N-methylhydroxylamine and formaldehyde increase with the dose and initial DMHA concentration, and that of formic acid increases
with the dose, but the relationship between the concentration of formic acid and initial DMHA concentration is not obvious.
The iron contents in the hair and blood samples of 37 juvenile athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/day, respectively, in the food of ferrous gluconatecontaining chocolate for 3 months were determined before and after the supplementation by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results showed that after supplementation of the iron-fortified food, the normal ferritin level in the blood of the male athletes was attained and the iron content in the hair was increased with supplementation, but both are not in the positive proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplementation of 8 mg iron/day to juvenile athletes may be desirable.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21
of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (
< 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group (
< 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group (
< 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.