Radiative heat transfer could be a significant contribution to the total heat transfer within the highly porous materials. This article reports on the use of a conventional instrument, viz. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, for the characterization of radiative heat properties of fiber assemblies with low bulk densities. Experimental measurements on spectral transmission with FTIR were performed on five types of fiber assemblies commonly used for insulating materials. From the measurements, radiative heat conductivity was determined by calculating extinction coefficient using Beer's Law and applying the diffusion approximation approach. Bulk density, fiber arrangement, and temperature influences to radiative heat transfer were discussed. Results show that radiative heat conductivity decreases with bulk density and that of the random arranged fiber assemblies shows lower radiative heat conductivity than the random ball and parallel arranged fiber assemblies. Radiative heat conductivity is proportional to the cubic temperature. The existing theoretical model was modified by comparing theoretical and experimental radiative heat conductivity results.
Fractal theory has been proved effective to characterize the complex pore structure. In this article, the fractal method is utilized to study the structure property of fibrous assemblies. The box dimension parameter is applied to characterize the pore structure of fibrous assemblies by analyzing the electronic scanning microscope images of the fibrous assemblies. Furthermore, a fractal model for predicting effective heat conductivity is established. Experiment is conducted to verify the model, and good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. The fractal model is also compared with the previous models for predicating heat conductivity, and the former is proved to be more accurate.
Authors:Y. Song, D. D. Xu, Z. F. Chai, H. Ouyang, W. Y. Feng, and X. Y. Mao
PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously in Beijing, China, and analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS. Seasonal variations of the concentrations
of ambient particles and their elemental compositions were found. The main sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in spring were the crust, coal burning and vehicle exhaust, in which the former was significant. During a strong dust storm,
the concentrations of the crustal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 increased remarkably, but the concentrations of some anthropogenic elements decreased. The enrichment factors of these anthropogenic
elements also decreased sharply during the dust storm, which indicated that they were mostly originated from local anthropogenic
pollution and diluted by the huge amount of dust.
Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.