The phase behaviour and phase stability of lipids are of importance in an understanding of the biological functions of cell membranes. Among a variety of physical techniques employed to study the phase behaviour and structural properties of polar lipids, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction have proved to be successful and are the most frequently used methods. Applications involving a combination of the two techniques, particularly when synchrotron radiation is used as the light source of X-ray diffraction, are reviewed in this article.
Authors:Y. Wen, S. Lahiri, Z. Qin, X. Wu, and W. Liu
An attempt has been made to develop a radiochemical methodology for the decontamination of a trace amount of radioactive cesium from a bulk amount of natural NaCl by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX). Open chain crown ethers, of amide type, namely, N,N,N",N"-tetraphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (TDD), N,N,N",N"-tetraphenyl-3,6,9-trioxaundecanediamide and N,N"-dinaphthyl-N,N"-diphenyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide (DDD) have been chosen for this purpose. The separation factor between Cs and Na is the highest when 10-4M TDD dissolved in nitrobenzene is used as extractant and 0.4M picric acid at pH 5.0 is used as aqueous phase. About 60% Cs is extracted in this condition in a single run.
Authors:H.-L. Liu, S.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Xiao, Q.-Y. Chen, and D.-W. Yang
Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures for tributyl
phosphate (TBP)+methanol/ethanol were measured with a TAM air Isothermal calorimeter
at 298.15 K and ambient. The results for xTBP+(1–x)CH3OH
are negative in the whole range of composition, while the values for xTBP+(1–x)C2H5OH
change from positive values at low x to
small negative values at high x. The experimental
results have been correlated with the Redlich–Kister polynomial. IR
spectra of the mixtures were measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen
bonding in the mixture.
Authors:L. Liu, Z. He, W. Ma, J. Liu, X. Xia, and R. Peña
Glutenin subunit alleles at the
locus and their effects on dough properties, pan bread, and dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) qualities were investigated using 106 winter and facultative wheat cultivars and advanced lines. Allele
(42.5%) was the most frequent glutenin subunit, followed by
occurred in only three and six cultivars, respectively. The effect of
was significant forDWCNquality, accounting for up to 16% of the variation, but there were no significant differences between individual
alleles on dough properties and qualities of DWCNand pan bread. Interaction effects
Glu-A1 × Glu-D3
Glu-B1 × Glu-D3
were significant for DWCN quality and loaf volume. More work is needed to understand the effects of
variation on the determination of dough properties and end-use quality.
Authors:S. Tang, L. Li, Q.Y. Zhou, W.Z. Liu, H.X. Zhang, W. Z. Chen, and Y.F. Ding
Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.
Authors:Z.L. Li, H.Y. Li, G. Chen, X.J. Liu, C.L. Kou, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, M. Hao, D.C. Liu, and L.Q. Zhang
Seven Glu-A1m allelic variants of the Glu-A1mx genes in Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, designated as 1Ax2.1a, 1Ax2.1b, 1Ax2.1c, 1Ax2.1d, 1Ax2.1e, 1Ax2.1f, and 1Ax2.1g were characterized. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in E. coli, and except for the 1Ax2.1a with the presence of internal stop codons at position of 313 aa, all correspond to the subunit in seeds. However, all the active six genes had a same DNA size although their encoding subunits showed different molecular weight. Our study indicated that amino acid residue substitutions rather than previously frequently reported insertions/deletions played an important role on the subunit evolution of these Glu-A1mx alleles. Since variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is rare, these novel genes at the Glu-A1mx can be used as candidate genes for further wheat quality improvement.
Authors:X. X. Han, X. M. Jiang, Z. G. Cui, J. W. Yan, and J. G. Liu
For obtaining high shale oil yield as well as treating shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way in a new comprehensive utilization system of oil shale, a series of fundamental experiments have been conducted for exploring the effects of retorting factors on shale oil yield and shale char characteristics. Based on these previous studies, in this article, combustion experiments of shale chars obtained under various retorting conditions were performed with a Q5000IR thermogravimetric analyzer and a Leitz II-A heatable stage microscope and the effects of retorting factors were discussed on the combustion characteristics of shale char. Among four studied retorting parameters, retorting temperature and residence time exert very significant influence on the combustion characteristics of shale char. Either elevating the retorting temperature from 430 to 520 °C or lengthening the residence time at a low retorting temperature will largely decrease residual organic matters within shale char, resulting in decreasing mass loss in the low-temperature stage of combustion process of shale char, an elevation of ignition temperature and a shift of ignition mechanism from homogeneous to heterogeneous. One set of retorting condition was also recommended as a reference for designing the comprehensive utilization system of oil shale studied in this work: retort temperature of 460–490 °C, residence time of 20–40 min, particle size of <3 mm, and low heating rate of <10 °C/min.
Authors:Z. Ren, W. Liu, Y. Hou, Y. Zhu, L. Chang, and D. Ma
Thermogravimetry (TG) was employed to study the thermal degradation kinetics of poly(etherketone/sulfone)ethylimide (PEK-IE and PES-IE). The corresponding decomposition activation energies and reaction orders were obtained and the comparison was made with their parent polymerspoly(ether-ketone/sulfone) with Cardo group (PEK-C and PES-C). The results show that the degradation activation energies of PEK-IE and PES-IE were lower than that of PEK-C and PES-C; and two stages of the degradation process were found for all the four polymers. For PEK-IE and PES-IE, the activation energies in the first decomposition stage are much lower than that in the second stage and the two stages can be taken as slow induction and fast degradation, whereas for PEK-C and PES-C the activation energies in the first decomposition stage are larger than that in the second stage, and the two stages can both be taken as two fast degradation stages. The decomposition mechanism of the two stages was also speculated.
Authors:X. Z. Lan, H. R. Pei, X. Yan, and W. B. Liu
Phase behavior of dodecane–tetradecane (n-C12H26–C14H30, n-C12–C14) binary system in bulk and confined in SBA-15 (pore diameters 8 nm; 15.9 nm) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. The bulk system possesses some special phases relating to the rotator phase in normal alkanes. Dodecane–tetradecane mixtures confined in SBA-15 (8 nm) are a system miscible both in solid and liquid states with a phase diagram of a smooth curve. Dodecane–tetradecane system confined in SBA-15 (15.9 nm) exhibits not only solid–liquid (s–l) in all compositions but solid–solid transition in mole fractions of tetradecane 0.1–0.6, which forms a phase diagram of “loop line” shape. Melting temperatures of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (8 nm) are lower than those of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (15.9 nm) in all mole fractions. The evolution of the phase diagram of n-C12–C14 confined in 8 nm, 15.9 nm pore sizes of SBA-15 and in bulk, respectively, shows a dramatic effect of confinement on phase behavior of normal alkane mixtures. The s–l phase boundary lines of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (8, 15.9 nm) are fitted as being , where D is a polynomial ∑ aixi, i = 1, 2,···, n (A = C14, B = C12).
Authors:W. J. Duan, Z. J. Zheng, Y. L. Geng, J. H. Liu, and X. Wang
A preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC) method for the isolation and purification of C6-C2 natural alcohol and benzyl ethanol from Forsythia suspensa was successfully established. Cornoside, forsythenside F, forsythiaside, and acteoside were rapidly obtained for the first time by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system ethyl acetate-n-butanol-methanol-water (5:1:0.5:5, υ/υ) in one-step separation. The purities of them were all above 97% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the combination of ESI-MS and NMR analysis confirmed the chemical structures of the four compounds.