As the first station in Central Asia of Xuanzang’s India pilgrimage, Turfan has contributed much to his success. This essay deals with two Turfanese who have served Xuanzang. (I) Among the numerous pupils and assistants of Xuanzang, Xuanjue is less renowned, yet he enjoys a position in Buddhist historiography. Thanks to MSS finds at Turfan, new clues of his life and work can now be gathered to supplement his biography particularly in respect to his importance for the local Buddhist community in the 7th century. (II) Though a marginal figure in the
, the once messenger of Xuanzang Ma Xuanzhi is recorded in a Turfan document.
Chinese sources document foreign names with phonetic transcriptions and render them in Chinese characters with close, or at least approximate, sound value. Among the Sogdians who were active at the Chinese court of the 6th century there were two persons named He Zhuruo and An Weiruo respectively. The etymology of both names can now be tentatively identified with Maniach, the name which was recorded in a Byzantine source, being that of a Sogdian envoy to Constantinople. Hence the original written form of Zhuruo and Weiruo can be restored with the spelling Moruo. The reason for these misspellings goes back to the graphic similarity of the concerned characters. Some further emendations of similar kinds are also proposed.
Authors:Xianwen Wang, Di Liu, Kun Ding and Xinran Wang
This study reports research on analyzing the impact of government funding on research output. 500,807 SCI papers published in 2009 in 10 countries are collected and analyzed. The results show that, in China, 70.34% of SCI papers are supported by some research funding, among which 89.57% are supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Average grants per funding-supported paper in China is 2.95, when in the USA the number is 2.93 and in Japan it is 2.40. The results of funding agency analysis show that, China, Germany and Spain are single funding agency dominated countries, while USA, Japan, Canada and Australia are double funding agencies dominated countries, and the source of funding in UK, France and Italy is diversified.
Authors:Shixia Song, Dongyuan Wang, Yongquan Cui, Fengyan Ding and Bo Yuan
Based on an RP-18 sintered plate, a new type of plate, RP-18 sintered aluminum nitride ceramic plate, was manufactured, which was made from silica gel and glass powders sintered on an aluminum nitride ceramic plate by bonding octadecyl and methyl silanes in suitable proportion. The key step of making such a plate was to soak the ceramic plate in the solution of sodium hydroxide before coating; other steps were the same as those of conventional RP-18 sintered plates. Besides its high mechanical stability and regeneration ability, the plate could work perfectly without addition of any buffer salts to mobile phase in planar electrochromatography (PEC) and was superior in eliminating joule heating.In this work, we used only the conventional apparatus to study the superiority of the new plate in eliminating joule heating from one side of the thin layer. The new plate would exhibit more of its superiority if it were used on pressurized PEC (PPEC) to eliminate joule heating from two sides of the thin layer.
Authors:Fengyan Ding, Dongyuan Wang, Shixia Song and Shuying Xu
Two new types of reversed-phase sintered plate have been prepared used in planar electrochromatography (PEC). One was bonded with phenyl, instead of octadecyl, without end-capping or with different amounts of end-capping and the other was bonded with octadecyl and then end-capped with phenyl instead of methyl. Both worked well with mobile phases containing no buffer salts, and high potential could be used with low Joule heating. Four dyes were used as samples to examine the characteristics of these two types of plate in planar electrochromatography. The former was unsatisfactory but the latter gave satisfactory results. Our preliminary work revealed that suitable bonding of octadecyl was from 0.03 to 0.06 whereas suitable bonding of phenyl for end-capping was from 0.005 to 0.02, which was readily achieved.
For the enhancement of thermal stability of poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO), the isocyanate end-capping reagent was prepared by treatment of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate with an equivalent
of 1-hexyl alcohol. The end-capping reagent and the end-capping PPDO with an inherent viscosity of 0.26 dL g−1 were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Thermal stability of the end-capping PPDO with an inherent viscosity of 0.92 dL g−1 was investigated isothermally and non-isothermally under air atmosphere using thermogravimetry. It has been shown that the
addition of the prepared isocyanate can enhance significantly the thermal stability of PPDO. The activation energies for non-isothermal
degradation estimated by Kissinger method and Friedman method are 91, 81 kJ mol−1 for as-prepared PPDO, and 160, 149 kJ mol−1 for the end-capping PPDO, respectively. The activation energy increases by about 70 kJ mol−1 through the end-capping.
Authors:Jianfei Ding, Rong Shao, Jun Wu, Zhangfeng Qin and Jianguo Wang
The dehydrogenation of isobutane to produce isobutene coupled with reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction in the presence of carbon dioxide was investigated over a NiO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The results illustrated that the coupling dehydrogenation of isobutane in carbon dioxide over NiO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst is effective, and the NiO/Al2O3 catalyst was modified with deposited carbon by impregnation of alumina with an aqueous solution of Ni(H2NCH2CH2NH2)x (NO3)2. Carbon modification can decrease the total acidity of the NiO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and enhance the dispersion of NiO active phase. Furthermore, carbon has low acidity and anti-coking performance, so the carbon modification is effective in suppressing the coke formation and side reactions occurrence. Therefore, the catalyst stability and the isobutene selectivity are improved significantly by the carbon modification.
Authors:F. Cui, J. Li, A. Ding, C. Zhao, X. Li, D. Feng, X. Wang, L. Wang and H. Wang
To comprehensively understand the genetic basis of plant height (PH), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for internode lengths, internode component indices and plant height component index (PHCI) were firstly conducted in the present study. Two related F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations comprising 485 and 229 lines were used. Two hundred and nine putative additive QTL for the eight traits were identified, 35 of which showed significance in at least three trials. Of these, at least 11 pairwise QTL were common to the two populations. PH components at the QTL level had different effects on PH, confirming our previous multivariate conditional analysis (Cui et al. 2011). Eleven major QTL that showed consistency in expression across environments should be of great value in the genetic improvement of PH in wheat. The results above will enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.
Authors:L. Wang, F. Cui, A. Ding, J. Li, J. Wang, C. Zhao, X. Li, D. Feng and H. Wang
A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 302 lines derived from a cross of Weimai 8 × Luohan 2 was used to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PH) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Possible genetic relationships between PH and PH components (PHC), including spike length (SL) and internode length from the first to the fourth node counted from the top, abbreviated as FIITL, SITL, TITL and FOITL, respectively, were evaluated at the QTL level. A QTL for PH was mapped using data on PH and on PH conditioned by PHC using the IciMapping V3.0 software. Conditional QTL mapping proved that, at the QTL level, SL contributed the least to PH, followed by FIITL and FOITL, while TITL had the strongest influence on PH, followed by SITL. These results indicate that the conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between PH and PHC, and that it can efficiently and precisely reveal counteracting QTL, which will enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.
Ceria–alumina composite supports were prepared by the co-precipitation (cop), impregnation (imp) or deposition–precipitation (dp) methods. Co–Mo catalysts supported on these composite supports were prepared by the imp method and their catalytic activities for sulfur-resistant methanation of synthesis gas were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). It was found that the preparation method of ceria–alumina composite support had a marked influence on the surface area, the interaction between ceria and alumina, and the catalytic performance for sulfur-resistant methanation. Among them, the ceria–alumina composite support prepared by dp method achieves the best methanation activity due to its smaller ceria particle size, better ceria dispersion, weak interaction between ceria–alumina as suggested by XRD and TPR results.