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  • Author or Editor: Wei Yue x
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Abstract  

Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) nucleated with 1,3:2,4-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS) was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The modified Avrami theory of Jeziorny and the Mo method were used to analyze the DSC data. The results suggested that the two methods were both suitable for crystallization kinetics of iPP nucleated with DMDBS. Half time of the crystallisation (t 1/2) of virgin iPP was larger than that of nucleated iPP under the same cooling rate. Meanwhile, the required cooling rate of virgin iPP was higher than that of iPP nucleated with DMDBS in order to reach the same relative crystallinity, both of which showed that the addition of nucleating agent DMDBS could increase the crystallization rate of iPP. In addition, incorporation of DMDBS changed the manner of nucleation and development.

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A simple, rapid, and sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for analysis of the residues of tricyclazole, thiram, and folpet in tomatoes has been established and validated. The sample was extracted by mechanical vibration at room temperature with acetone-dichloromethane 1:1 ( v/v ) and the extract was directly applied as bands to glass-backed silica gel 60F 254 HPTLC plates. The plates were developed with hexane-acetone 6+4 ( v/v ) in an unsaturated glass twin-trough chamber. Evaluation of the developed HPTLC plates was performed densitometrically. The results indicated that the detection limits of tricyclazole ( R F = 0.26), thiram ( R F = 0.65), and folpet ( R F = 0.77) were 1.2 × 10 −8 , 3.0 × 10 −8 , 4.0 × 10 −8 g, respectively. Recoveries of the pesticides from tomatoes with this analytical method were 67.66–98.02%, and RSD were 0.13–22.06%. The precision and accuracy of this method were generally fit for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes.

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Abstract

Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO), which has highly reactive and exothermically unstable characteristics, has been extensively employed in the chemical industries. It has also caused many thermal explosions and runaway reaction accidents in manufacturing processes during the last three decades in Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and China. The goal of this study was to simulate thermal upset by MEKPO for an emergency response. Vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to determine the thermokinetics of 20 mass% MEKPO. Data of thermokinetics and hazard behaviors were employed to simulate thermal explosion in three types of vessel containing 20 mass% MEKPO under various scenarios at the same volume. To compare and appraise the difference of important parameters, such as maximum temperature (T max), maximum pressure (P max), etc. This was necessary and useful for investigating the emergency response procedure associated with industrial applications.

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A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous analysis of temephos and fenitrothion in green tea has been established and validated. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate by mechanical vibration at room temperature and the extract was cleaned by use of an SPE tandem column, before elution with dichloromethane. The extract was applied as bands to glassbacked silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates. The plates were developed with acetone-hexane 3+7 (v/v), in an unsaturated glass twin-trough chamber. The developed HPTLC plates were evaluated densitometrically. The detection limits of temephos (R F 0.55) and fenitrothion (R F 0.69) were 20 and 10 ng, respectively. Recovery from green tea of the two pesticides at levels of 0.2 to 4 mg kg−1 was 80–107% with relative standard deviations of 4.4–20.2%. The precision and accuracy of the method were generally fit for analysis of temephos and fenitrothion residues in green tea.

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A simple, rapid, and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for analysis of residues of imidacloprid, fenitrothion, and parathion in Chinese cabbage. The sample was extracted by sonication in an ultrasonic water bath with acetone-petroleum ether, 5:3 ( v / v ), and the extract was directly applied, as bands, to glass-backed silica gel 60F 254 HPTLC plates. The plates were developed with hexane-acetone, 7 + 3 ( v / v ), in an unsaturated glass twin-trough Camag chamber. Evaluation of the developed HPTLC plates was performed densitometrically with a Camag TLC Scanner 3 controlled by an external PC running Wincats software (Version 1.1.2). The results indicated that the detection limits of imidacloprid ( R F = 0.10), fenitrothion ( R F = 0.59), and parathion ( R F = 0.70) were 5.0 × 10 −9 g, 2.0 × 10 −8 g, 1.0 × 10 −8 g, respectively. Recoveries of the pesticides from Chinese cabbage by use of this analytical method were 80.04–85.22%, and RSD were 4.18–13.15%. The precision and accuracy of the method were generally fit for analysis of pesticide residues in Chinese cabbage.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Lin-Quan Liao, Hong-Jian Wei, Ji-Zhen Li, Xue-Zhong Fan, Ya Zheng, Yue-Ping Ji, Xiao-Long Fu, Ya-Jun Zhang, and Fang-Li Liu

Abstract

The compatibility of poly(3-nitromethyl-3-methyloxetane) (PNIMMO) with some energetic materials are studied by using pressure DSC method in detail. Cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), nitrocellulose (NC), nitroglycerine (NG), N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA), and aluminum powder (Al) are used as common energetic materials, and 3,4-dinitrofurzanfuroxan (DNTF), 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), hexanitrohexazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), 4,6-dinitro-5,7-diaminobenzenfuroxan (CL-14), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (DADNE), and 4-amino-5-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (ANTZ) are used as new energetic materials. The results show that the binary systems of PNIMMO with HMX, RDX, NC, NG, DINA, Al, CL-14 and DADNE are compatible, with TNAZ, CL-20 and ANTZ are slightly sensitive, and with DNTF is sensitive.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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