Barium(II) tetraphenylborate, Ba(Bph4))2·4H2O was prepared, and its decomposition mechanism was studied by means of TG and DTA. The products of thermal decomposition were examined by means of gas chromatography and chemical methods. A kinetic analysis of the first stage of thermal decomposition was made on the basis of TG and DTG curves and kinetic parameters were obtained from an analysis of the TG and DTG curves using integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic function was suggested by comparison of kinetic parameters. A mathematical expression was derived for the kinetic compensation effect.
Using XRY-1C calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpy of taurine was determined to be −2546.2 kJ mol−1. The reliability of the instrument used was tested by using naphthalene as reference material; and through comparing the molar combustion enthalpy of naphthalene measured with its standard value found in literature, the absolute error and relative error were found to be 4.53 kJ mol−1 and 0.09%, respectively. The melting point and melting enthalpy of taurine were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which was found to be 588.45 K and −22.197 kJ mol−1, respectively. Moreover, using the DSC method, the specific heat capacities Cp of taurine was measured and the relationship between Cp and temperature was established. The thermodynamic basic data obtained are available for the exploiting new synthesis method, engineering design and industry production of taurine.
To evaluate in-vivo and in-vitro effects of ferulic acid (FA) on glucocorticoid-induced osteoarthritis (GIO) to establish its possible underlying mechanisms.
The effects of FA on cell proliferation, cell viability (MTT assay), ALP activity, and mineralization assay, and oxidative stress markers (ROS, SOD, GSH LDH and MDA levels) were investigated by MC3T3-E1 cell line. Wistar rats received standard saline (control group) or dexamethasone (GC, 2 mg−1 kg) or DEX+FA (50 and 100 mg−1 kg) orally for 8 weeks. Bone density, micro-architecture, bio-mechanics, bone turnover markers and histo-morphology were determined. The expression of OPG, RANKL, osteogenic markers, and other signalling proteins was assessed employing quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting.
The findings indicated the elevation of ALP mRNA expressions, osteogenic markers (Runx-2, OSX, Col-I, and OSN), and the β-Catenin, Lrp-5 and GSK-3β protein expressions. FA showed the potential to increase MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, proliferation, and mineralization. FA increased oxidative stress markers (SOD, MDA, and GSH) while decreasing ROS levels and lactate dehydrogenase release in GIO rats. The OPG/RANKL mRNA expression ratio was increased by FA, followed by improved GSK-3β and ERK phosphorylation with enhanced mRNA expressions of Lrp-5 and β-catenin.
These findings showed that FA improved osteoblasts proliferation with oxidative stress suppression by controlling the Lrp-5/GSK-3β/ERK pathway in GIO, demonstrating the potential pathways involved in the mechanism of actions of FA in GIO therapy.
A novel extractant, N, N-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ), was synthesized for the first time. The extraction of U(VI) by DDPEZ from aqueous nitric acid media in carbon tetrachloride has been studied. The dependence of extraction distribution ratio on concentration of aqueous nitric acid, extractant, salting-out agent and temperature was investigated and the enthalpy of the extraction was calculated.
Laser-induced optical fiber fluorimetry has been first used to analyze uranium(VI) concentration in the kinetic studies on the extraction of uranium(VI) between 0.5 mol/l H3PO4 solution and HDEHP-cyclohexane system with a Lewis cell. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and concentrations of uranium(VI) and HDEHP on the rate of extraction were examined. These data show that the extraction rate of uranium(VI) in this system is controlled by the chemical reaction at the interface. The rate equations and the rate constants of forward and reverse extraction are obtained. The mechanism of the extraction is discussed.
Organically modified clay minerals with high thermal stability are critical for synthesis and processing of clay-based nanocomposites. Two series of organo-montmorillonites have been synthesized using surfactants with different alkyl chain length. The organo-montmorillonites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential thermogravimetry, combining with molecule modelling. For surfactant with relatively short alkyl chain, the resultant organo-montmorillonite displays a small maximum basal spacing (ca. 1.5 nm) and most surfactants intercalate into montmorillonite interlayer spaces as cations with a small amount of surfactant molecules loaded in the interparticle pores with “house-of-cards” structure. However, for surfactant with relatively long alkyl chain, the resultant organo-montmorillonite displays a large maximum basal spacing (ca. 4.1 nm) and the loaded surfactants exist in three formats: intercalated surfactant cations, intercalated surfactant molecules (ionic pairs), and surfactant molecules in interparticle pores. The surfactant molecules (ionic pairs) in interparticle pores and interlayer spaces will be evaporated around the evaporation temperature of the neat surfactant while the intercalated surfactant cations will be evaporated/decomposed at higher temperature.
Toddalia asiatica (Linn) Lam (T. asiatica) as a traditional Miao medicine was investigated to find rational alternative medicinal parts for T. asiatica root bark and its antitumor chemical constituents by quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and multivariate statistical analysis. A bivariate correlation analysis method based on microscopic characteristics and content of chemical constituents was established for the first time, there were some regular discoveries between powder microscopic characteristics and common chromatographic peaks of T. asiatica through quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, cork cells, calcium oxalate square crystal, brown clump, starch granule and phloem fiber, as powder microscopic characteristics may be placed where the main chemical constitutes were enriched. Scores plot of principal component analysis (PCA) and dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) showed that 18 T. asiatica samples were distinguished correctly, clustered clearly into two main groups as follows: S01∼S03 (root bark) and S07∼S09 (stem bark) in cluster 1, S04∼S06 and S10∼S18 in cluster 2. Nineteen common peaks were obtained in HPLC fingerprint of T. asiatica, loadings plot of PCA indicated seven compounds played important roles in different part of samples (P10 > P08 > P07 > P14 > P16 > P17 > P19), peaks 04, 06, 07, 08, 10 were identified as hesperidin, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, toddalolactone, isopimpinlline and pimpinellin. MTT assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of different medicinal parts of T. asiatica on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, all parts of T. asiatica had different inhibitory effects on MCF-7 cell lines, root and stem barks of T. asiatica showed the best inhibitory activity. The relationship between chemical constituents and the inhibitions on MCF-7 cell had been established, significant antitumor constituents of T. asiatica were identified by correlation analysis, the order of the antitumor effect of the main compounds was P07 (toddalolactone) > P16 > P06 (4-methoxycinnamic acid), P11 > P18 > P10 (pimpinellin) > P08 (isopimpinellin) > P01 > P19 > P14 > P04 (hesperidin) > P17, which were antitumor chemical constituents of T. asiatica root bark. T. asiatica stem bark was the most rational alternative medicinal part for T. asiatica root bark.
Batch sorption experiments were performed to remove Eu(III) ions from aqueous solutions by using attapulgite under ambient
conditions. Different experimental conditions, such as contact time, solid content, foreign ions, pH, ionic strength, fulvic
acid and temperature, have been investigated to study their effect on the sorption property. The results indicated that the
sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH, ionic strength and temperature. The sorption increased
from about 8.9 to 90% at pH ranging from 2 to 6 in 0.01 mol/L NaNO3 solution. The Eu(III) kinetic sorption on attapulgite was fitted by the pseudo-second-order model better than by the pseudo-first-order
model. The sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite increased with increasing temperature and decreasing ionic strength. The Langmuir
and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the Freundlich model simulated
the data better than the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆Go, ∆So, ∆Ho) were determined from the temperature dependent isotherms at 298.15, 318.15 and 338.15 K, and the results indicated that
the sorption reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite is a suitable material
as an adsorbent for preconcentration and immobilization of Eu(III) from aqueous solutions.