This article is based on ethnographic research conducted by me in 2004–2010, alone in the beginning, then with a group of students from the University of Warsaw. The study initially involved only the memory of Jews among the elderly population of Podkarpacie. Later I expanded the topic on the ethnic relations, cultural and religious conditions in the multiethnic society. I will not, however, present here the outcomes, but will share some reflections which I had during my fielwork.Why did I choose this particular region? Podkarpacie constituted a unique area in terms of the complexity of the ethnic mosaic, even for East-Central Europe. In this multicultural world a specific relationship between ethnic groups emerged, each of which had its own specific socio-economic function. This system, created and perpetuated over the centuries of common existence, was the result of two factors — on the one hand, the internal characteristics of a single group, on the other hand, the impact of other groups.