While it has long been noted that Chinese Buddhist translations contain many new lexical and syntactic elements that were created due to the contact between Indic and Chinese languages during the translation process, few attempts have been made to systematically explore the major mechanisms of such contact-induced creations. This paper examines six mechanisms of contact-induced lexical creations and three mechanisms of contact-induced syntactic creations in Chinese Buddhist translations. All of these mechanisms have parallels in non-Sinitic language contacts. The parallels demonstrate that Chinese Buddhist translations and non-Sinitic language contacts show striking similarities in the ways in which they brought about new lexical and syntactic elements.
Authors:Y. Xu-Wu, Z. Hang-Guo, S. Wu-Juan, W. Xiao-Yan, and G. Sheng-Li
The copper(II) complex of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) has been prepared with dihydrated cupric chloride and 6-benzylaminopurine.
Infrared spectrum and thermal stabilities of the solid complex have been discussed. The constant-volume combustion energy,
ΔcU, has been determined as −12566.92±6.44 kJ mol−1 by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. From the results and other auxiliary quantities, the standard molar enthalpy
of combustion, ΔcHmθ, and the standard molar of formation of the complex, ΔfHmθ, were calculated as −12558.24±6.44 and −842.50±6.47 kJ mol−1, respectively.
Authors:Zhang Shuyan, Wang Xizhong, Wang Zishu, Cheng Wenyuan, Jin Jianan, Zhang Jiazao, Xu Daoquan, Shao Yuesheng, Luo Changrong, Wang Juan, Wu Kejia, and Zhou Maolun
Na2 1 1At and2 1 1At–Te colloid injections were prepared. By comparison with tissue distribution of Na2 1 1At and2 1 1At–Te colloid injections it has been demonstrated that the2 1 1At–Te colloid is stable in vivo. It has been shown that the radiohalogen,2 1 1At, has huge and extensive radiobiological effects in studying on the changes in histopathology, enzyme histochemistry, chromosome aberration, micronucleus frequency of bone-marrow polychromatic erythrocytes and the injury effect of2 1 1At on experimental Ehrlich ascites cells.
Authors:Xinqi Zhou, Renjing Wu, Congcong Liu, Juan Kou, Yuanshu Chen, Halley M. Pontes, Dezhong Yao, Keith M. Kendrick, Benjamin Becker, and Christian Montag
Background and aims
Growing concerns about the addictive nature of Internet and computer games led to the preliminary recognition of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as an emerging disorder by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a new diagnosis by the World Health Organization (WHO). While the definition of clear diagnostic criteria for (I)GD represents an important step for diagnosis and treatment of the disorder, potential neurobiological correlates of the criteria remain to be explored.
The present study employed a dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) approach to determine associations between (I)GD symptom-load according to the APA and WHO diagnostic frameworks and brain structure in a comparably large sample of n = 82 healthy subjects.
Higher symptom-load on both, the APA and WHO diagnostic frameworks convergently associated with lower volumes of the striatum.
The results from this exploratory study provide the first initial evidence for a neurobiological foundation of the proposed diagnostic criteria for (I)GD according to both diagnostic classification systems and suggest that the transition from non-disordered to disordered gaming may be accompanied by progressive neuroplastic changes in the striatum, thus resembling progressive changes in other addictive disorders.
The proposed (I)GD criteria in both diagnostic systems were associated with neurostructural alterations in the striatum, suggesting an association with progressive changes in the motivational systems of the brain.