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A győri “Istenszülő az Életadó forrás”-ikon: egy magyarországi posztbizánci emlék ikonográfiájához

Győr Icon of the Mother of God “The Life-Giving Spring”. To the iconography of a post-Byzantine relic in Hungary

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Xénia Golub

Abstract

The paper looks – mainly from the point of view of iconography – at the intricate composition of the icon of The Mother of God “The Life-giving Fountain” made around 1700 and once used in the former Serbian orthodox church of Győr. Despite the Greek title of the icon calling the Mother of God the Life-giving Fountain, it only partly fits into the tradition of this Byzantine icon type that evolved in the Palaeologan age. The relic is astonishingly innovative not only in the Hungarian stock of icons but also in the whole of post-Byzantine icon painting first of all on account of its secondary motifs. The analysis of analogies and pictorial sources of the individual compositional elements – various plant motifs, the fountain, the coronation of the Virgin, motifs alluding to the celestial sphere – has revealed that the Győr icon is an elaborate complex of western influences arriving into post-Byzantine art along diverse routes. The inscriptions also tie the icon to the Byzantine Akathist hymn to the Blessed Virgin which includes the same symbols of Mary rooted in the Bible as were widespread in the West as well in the early baroque cult of the Virgin. The Győr icon has connections with post-Byzantine iconographic types displaying the influence of western art, such as the tree of Jesse, the Unfading rose, which together with the Life-giving Fountain icon were popular in the 16–17th century icon painting in the territory between Venice, Crete and Athos. The special art historical place of the studied icon is, however, defined by its closest iconographic analogy, the Sammelikone surviving in the imperial court of Vienna, in which the central image of the Life-giving Fountain is added the votive portraits of Emperor Leopold I and his wife. The Győr icon of the Life-giving Fountain is most probably related to some orthodox ethnic group (Serbs, Greeks, Macedonians) who fled the Ottomans to the area of the Habsburg Empire.

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A pomázi szerb templom berendezésének kialakulása a 18. század végén

Evolution of the furnishing of the serbian church in pomáz by the late 18th century

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Xénia Golub

Commission to build an Orthodox church in Pomáz was given around 1720 by the Serbian population demonstrably present in the settlement from the 1660s. The church dedicated to the megalomartyr Saint George was consecrated by the bishop of Buda Mihailo Milošević (1716–1728) in 1722, exactly 300 years ago. The orthodox church of Pomáz is one of the earliest surviving monuments of the Serbian Church after the great Serbian immigration (Seoba). Its history and artistic values have been dealt with by Pál Voit, Sztoján D. Vujicsics, Iván Jaksity sr., Dinko Davidov and Márta Nagy earlier. The church books of birth marriage and death survive as of 1752, the documents of the parish as of 1783. The scrutiny of the accounts books for the period from 1783 and 1800 has revealed a lot of new data about the construction of the church, its furnishing and even of the masters involved. The presentation of the new information is the main aim of the paper.

The explored archival data reveal that the church built around 1720 was already in need of reconstruction by the 1770s. In the western end of the nave a gallery was erected in 1783 and by 1794 the old tower was replaced by a new taller one. The still extant furniture is documented from the 1780s. in 1789 two painters were contracted to decorate the existing canons’ seats and the bishop’s throne. The identity of the master named Georgije in a source is unsettled. The other can be identified as painter Arsenije Teodorović (1767–1826) who was in the first year of his studies at Vienna’s Academy. He was to become one of the most outstanding figures of Serbian painting in the age whose many prestigious commissions in the Serbian Orthodox diocese of Buda included the painted decoration of the furnishing of St Nicholas’s church in Baja at the beginning of his career (1793–1794), and already as a mature painter he decorated the iconostasis, cantors’ benches and the throne of the Theotokos in the orthodox cathedral of Buda (Tabán) (1818–1820). From his works in Pomáz only the pictorial representation on the bishop’s seat survives partly overpainted. It shows Saint John Chrysostom in a fairly unusual composition.

The wooden framework of the classicizing late baroque iconostasis (1793–1794) was made by wood carver Avram Manojlović of zombor; his most exquisite work in Hungary is the iconostasis in Baja (1788–1790). The iconostasis of Pomáz – a far more modest work than the one in Baja – was a commission for the Baja-born Pavel Ðurković (1772–1830?) as the recently explored documents verify. So far, the first iconostasis by Ðurković – who was to become the decisive artist of the Serbs in the first quarter of the 19th century – was believed to be the one in Dunaföldvár dated to 1799–1801, but the new source confirms that his first known ecclesiastic commission was the pomáz iconostasis. regrettably, owing to layers of overpainting only certain segments have preserved Ðurković’s brushstrokes.

A few separate icons in the Pomáz church verify the active presence of another two 18th century Serbian painters in Pomáz. The icon of Christ Enthroned with Saint John the Baptist is attributable to Hristofor Žefarović’s workshop. It probably belonged to the earlier iconostasis painted a little before 1740. Today there is only a single icon in the Pomáz church that preserves the memory of the sojourn in the village in 1770–1775 of Teodor Simeonov gruntović from Moscopolis, who with his workshop was very active in the territory of the Hungarian kingdom. His best-known works are the rich ensembles of icons in the churches of ráckeve and Székesfehérvár.

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