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Abstract  

A method of efficiency calibration for the measurement of 88Kr and 138Xe by HPGe γ-spectrometer is proposed in the present paper. The question for the efficient calibration is, how to achieve homogeneous sources of 88Kr-88Rb and 138Xe-138Cs. The fission product gases were obtained by irradiating a precisely measured amount of U3O8 (90% 235U) filled in a quartz glass ampoule. Source cell was first filled up with stearic acid, and then the fission product gases were charged into it. Xenon and krypton are not adsorbed on stearic acid, therefore, homogeneous sources of 88Kr-88Rb and 138Xe-138Cs can be prepared. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the method is feasible and successful.

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Abstract  

We studied the removal process of excessive free carbon in the nano-SiC powder by TG-DTA-MS, XRD and TEM three methods. The studies showed that the temperature of removing excessive free carbon in the nano-SiC powder should be about 750°C in air.

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Abstract  

Ca-47 radioactive tracer was used to determine the phamocodynamics, distribution pattern, absorption and bioavailability of a new type calcium supplement in rabbit prepared by plasma technology. Our results indicate that calcium from the new nutrient is mainly deposited in bone 6 or 7 days after oral administration. The absorption rate of this new calcium preparation is estimated to be 30–40 %.

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Abstract  

In order to measure 182Hf by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a chemical procedure for separation of hafnium from tungsten has been developed by extraction chromatography. The extraction chromatographic behavior of hafnium and tungsten has been studied using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) as the stationary phase, HCl–H2O2 mixture and NH3·H2O as the mobile phase. The effects of H2O2 concentration, column loading and column dimensions are investigated. Hf and W with microgram amounts are successfully separated on a chromatographic column (Ø5 × 196 mm), on which Hf is hardly retained after completely eluted with 6 M HCl–1% H2O2 and W strongly adsorbed is then eluted with 3 M NH3·H2O. The decontamination factor for tungsten is 3.0 × 105 and the recovery of hafnium is better than 99% using a single column separation.

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Abstract  

Humic substances have attracted great interest in the investigation of metal ion behavior in the environment because of their special properties. Sorption and complexation of Pb2+ on MX-80 bentonite, LA bentonite, alumina and silica as a function of pH were studied in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA). The experiments were carried out in 0.01M and 0.001M NaNO3 solutions under ambient conditions. The results indicate that sorption of Pb2+ on the solid samples is strongly dependent on pH and FA. The sorption of Pb2+ is not influenced drastically by ionic strength. The nature of minerals/oxides, nature of humic substances and the composition of the solution are important factors in the behavior of metal ions in the environment. The results also indicate that FA has a positive effect on Pb2+ sorption at low and a negative effect at high pH values, and the results are discussed in the comparative complexation between FA-Pb2+ and Pb2+-minerals.

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Abstract  

Sorption of Th(IV) on Na-rectorite as a function of pH, ionic strength, soil humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) are studied under ambient conditions by using a batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of Th(IV) on Na-rectorite is not only dependent on medium pH values, but also dependent on medium ionic strength and humic substances. Surface complexation and cation competition exchange account for Th(IV) sorption on Na-rectorite. The sorption of Th(IV) on Na-rectorite decreases with the increase on the concentration of NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2, and increases with the increasing amount of HA/FA in the suspension/adsorbed on rectorite. Soil HA/FA enhances the sorption of Th(IV) on rectorite at medium pH<4 drastically, but the presence of FA reduces the sorption of Th(IV) at medium pH>6, and HA has no effect on Th(IV) sorption at medium pH>6. An interpretation for the results is attempted, considering the occurrence of different sorption mechanisms.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Songsheng Jiang, Zhiyuan Chang, Min Zhao, Yonggang Zhao, X. L. Zhao, and W. E. Kieser

Summary  

Under an IAEA project for upgrading of reference materials, a new determination of the 129I concentration in the IAEA-375 reference material was performed. A chemical procedure was set up for the preparation of the AgI samples. Measurement of 129I was carried out using the IsoTrace Tandetron AMS facility at University of Toronto. To ensure the accuracy of the calibration, the tuning of the AMS system was iterated using not only the QC (quality control) samples but also all unknown samples. To minimize any possible current-dependent effects between 129I and 127I ions in the injection magnet, low Cs+ sputtering beam intensity (10 μA) was used. The reproducibility in determining the 129I/127I ratio in the IAEA-375 AgI samples was less than 1%. The activity concentration (C A) of 129I in the IAEA-375 reference material was determined to be 1.59±0.08 mBq . kg-1 at 95% confidence level. The present value is about 7% lower than the IAEA recommended value (1.7 mBq . kg-1) listed in 2000 or 20% lower than the recommended value (2 mBq . kg-1) listed in the IAEA AQCS Reference Material Catalogue (2002-2003). Since the IAEA recommended values for IAEA-375 materials was issued about 10 years ago and error range of the recommended values were large, the results we obtained might be useful in upgrading the recommended value.

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The neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a functional food ingredient of growing importance in the preparation of GABA-enriched germinated brown rice (GBR). Quantification of GABA levels during germination in a locally developed high yielding red rice variety (UKMRC-9) was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis using pre-column chemical derivatisation with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HN) using a UV detection system. Factors that influence rice germination such as soaking time and temperature were also studied. The results of this study showed that the UKMRC-9 rice variety soaked in water for 6 hours at 35 °C yielded the highest value for both germination percentage (95.4±1.2%) and GABA content (411 μg g-1). This suggests that long soaking times of 1-4 days can be substituted by short soaking times to produce high GABA levels in germinated brown rice.

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A new, sensitive, and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the quantification of six flavonoids (sophoricoside, genistin, genistein, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol) in rat bile and urine. The sample pretreatment was simple by liquid-liquid extraction. Sulfamethalazole was used as internal standard (IS). During method development, the effect of extraction volume, mobile phase composition, column temperature, and injection volume were varied to optimize sensitivity and achieve a run time as short as possible. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C18 column with a simple linear gradient elution within 9 min. Full validation of the assay was in accordance with the requirement of the validation of the method in vivo and implemented including specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect. This is the first report on determination of the major flavones in rat bile and urine after oral administration of Fructus Sophorae extract. The method has been used successfully in excretion studies of six major flavonoids in rat bile and urine.

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As one of the world’s earliest domesticated crops, barley is a model species for the study of evolution and domestication. Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby a population adapts, through selection; to new environments created by human cultivation. We describe the genome-scanning of molecular diversity to assess the evolution of barley in the Tibetan Plateau. We used 667 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to genotype 185 barley landraces and wild barley accessions from the Tibetan Plateau. Genetic diversity in wild barley was greater than in landraces at both genome and chromosome levels, except for chromosome 3H. Landraces and wild barley accessions were clearly differentiated genetically, but a limited degree of introgression was still evident. Significant differences in diversity between barley subspecies at the chromosome level were observed for genes known to be related to physiological and phenotypical traits, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, malting quality and agronomic traits. Selection on the genome of six-rowed naked barley has shown clear multiple targets related to both its specific end-use and the extreme environment in Tibet. Our data provide a platform to identify the genes and genetic mechanisms that underlie phenotypic changes, and provide lists of candidate domestication genes for modified breeding strategies.

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