To order to examine experimentally the modified monostandard method implemented in the program MULTINAA, the FRM reactor in Garching (Germany) was calibrated and an INAA of a standard reference material NIST/SRMI1633b Coal Fly Ash was performed. The relative, thek0-and the modified monostandard standardizations are applied. This work shows that for all of the examined 1/-nuclides the modified monostandard method provides identical analytical results to those determined by thek0-method. For the non-1/ nuclides177Lu and152Eu the monostandard results are correct. Compared with the certified values of the analysed SRM1633b sample and also with the results of the relative method, it can be concluded that the modified monostandard method performed at our experimental conditions gives analytical results with accuracy better than 5%.
A modified NiS fire-assay neutron activation method is developed for the determination of all platinum-group elements (PGEs) in mantle-derived xenoliths. This method is characterized by sub-ppb detection limits, <0.1~0.002 ppb procedural blanks and 7~15% analytical precision for PGEs. Analyses of PGE standard rocks indicate that this modified NiS fire-assay neutron activation method is as reliable as the method previously proposed for a large scale of samples. The capability of the method for the measurement of PGEs in the upper mantle is also illustrated by some exciting results obtained from mantle-derived xenoliths of Eastern China.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Li, X. Yang, W. Liu and L. Li
A reborn interest has occurred during the last decade toward wheat landraces for broadening genetic basis of modern wheat cultivars. The investigation of molecular traits within and between existing landraces of wheat can help scientists to develop appropriate strategies for their efficient maintenance and exploitation. The present study dealt with the gliadin characterization of forty-seven wheat landraces collected from wheat mainly planted areas of China, each of which was represented by a sample of at least 43 individuals. Twelve accessions selected on the basis of gliadin analysis were investigated further using 21 SSR markers. The results proved that landraces of wheat are a mixture of variable individuals genetically distinguishable from each other. Twelve of the analyzed 47 accessions were observed to be homogeneous, while 35 (74.5%) of them were heterogeneous in their gliadin composition. In total, 122 gliadin pattern were observed. On average, 10.1% (Gst) of the total variation arose from differentiation among regions, and 89.9% was attributed to within-region variation. Furthermore, nineteen of the 21 SSR markers were polymorphic across all the populations. The total number of the amplified DNA products was 110, with a mean of 6.11 alleles per locus. The values of genetic diversity within each landrace population varied from 0.006 to 0.351. Implications for the management of this valuable genetic resource are discussed.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Yang, X. Li, W. Liu, A. Gao and L. Li
Youzimai is a widespread wheat landrace and has been used extensively in breeding programs in China. In order to assess the genetic variation between and within Youzimai accessions, samples of 31 landrace accessions of wheat, all called ‘Youzimai’, were collected from 6 geographic regions in China and evaluated using morphological traits, seedling resistance to powdery mildew, gliadin and microsatellite markers. Typical differences among accessions were observed in morphological characteristics. Forty-five (58.4%) of 77 assayed SSR markers showed polymorphism over the entire collection and total 226 alleles were identified with an average of 5.02 alleles per locus. SSR data indicated that the accessions from Hebei province were the most diverse, as evidenced by greatest number of region-specific alleles and highest diversity index. These accessions, therefore, probably experienced the most substantial morphological and molecular evolution as a result of various natural and anthropomorphic influences. On the other hand, differentiation in gliadin phenotypes was found among seeds within 80.6% of total accessions and average 61.5% of entire collections showed heterogeneous and comprised resistant plants in reaction to powdery mildew, suggesting the presence of a wide diversity within the wheat landrace. By developing an intimate knowledge of the available wheat genotypes, appropriate selections can be made for commercial application in order to conserve and exploit the diversity of the wheat landraces.
Triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are used in a wide range of household and personal care products and have been the most frequently detected organic pollutants in both wastewater and surface water. This paper presented a rapid analytical method for simultaneous determination of TCC and TCS in wastewater. The method involves the extraction and cleanup of the target compounds by using silicon dioxide/polystyrene composite microspheres solid-phase extraction and detection with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were 0.028 μg/L and 0.040 μg/L for TCC and TCS, respectively. Under the concentrations of the spiking level ranging from 0.100 μg/L to 2.000 μg/L, the spiked recoveries of TCC and TCS in wastewater samples achieved in the range of 89.5–102.8% with RSD below 6.3% for TCC and 95.5–103.6% with RSD below 6.9% for TCS. This method was successfully used in monitoring the water samples from three traditional wastewater treatment plants.
A compute program MULTINAA was developed to facilitate the evaluation of NAA data. It is written for the VAX/VMS syste and opeates in the Canberra/ND Genie spectroscopy software environment. MULTIINAA can be appliede to relative,k0-, monostandard (modified) and absolute methods, including the fast neutron threshold reaction. For each calculation, the available standardizations can be used individually or mixed. In all the standardization modes MULTINAA fetches the data directly from the -ray spectra and libraries, thus reducing the manual work to a minimum. MULTINAA is flexibkle to meet various situations in NAA practical work. The required neutron flux parameters all the non-relative methods are supplied by an accompanying program MULTIFLUX.
A characterization formula of an orthonormal multiwavelet with di_erent real dilations and translations for LE2(R) is presented. The result includes the known result on the classical Hardy space H2(R).
By using 188Re as a radiotracer, the extraction behavior of Re(VII) by a tertiary amine extractant N-235 from HCl and the back-extraction behavior of Re(VII) by HNO3 and ammonia were studied. A chemical separation procedure, which combined the acid alumina column and solvent extraction was established. The procedure was rapid and efficient for the separation of 186Re from 186W irradiated by 16 MeV deuterons. No-carrier-added 186ReO4– saline solution with high specific volume activity was obtained. The overall recovery yield of 186Re was about 85%.
An isothermal method was applied to measure the thermal
decomposition of reactive solids in a sensitive heat flux reaction calorimeter,
C80. This technique experimentally clarified the decomposition mechanisms
of unstable substances based on the shapes of the heat flow curves, from which
autocatalysis, first-order reaction or pseudo-autocatalytic reaction could
be recognized. Kinetic parameters were derived from the measured data.
Contamination and adsorption of trace elements during storage of natural water samples in polyethylene containers have been studied. Variations of concentrations of 29 elements in pH=1.5 natural water samples stored in polyethylene bottles for 15 and 30 days respectively were determined by the method of freeze-drying preconcentration and NAA. The percentage adsorption loss of radioactive indicators60Co,124Sb,65Zn,75Se,134Cs and46Sc in the pH=1.5–8.0 reservoir water, tap water and distilled water stored for 1–2 months were also determined. The optimized storage condition for natural water is obtained.