Triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are used in a wide range of household and personal care products and have been the most frequently detected organic pollutants in both wastewater and surface water. This paper presented a rapid analytical method for simultaneous determination of TCC and TCS in wastewater. The method involves the extraction and cleanup of the target compounds by using silicon dioxide/polystyrene composite microspheres solid-phase extraction and detection with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were 0.028 μg/L and 0.040 μg/L for TCC and TCS, respectively. Under the concentrations of the spiking level ranging from 0.100 μg/L to 2.000 μg/L, the spiked recoveries of TCC and TCS in wastewater samples achieved in the range of 89.5–102.8% with RSD below 6.3% for TCC and 95.5–103.6% with RSD below 6.9% for TCS. This method was successfully used in monitoring the water samples from three traditional wastewater treatment plants.
A novel method for separating and concentrating magnolol and honokiol from Magnoliae Cortex by solvent sublation and analysis of the compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been established. The optimum conditions for solvent sublation were use of n-butanol as sublation solvent, sample solution at pH 2, nitrogen flow 50 mL min–1, and sublation time 50 min. The floating product obtained under the optimum conditions was determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reversed-phase column, with 22:78 (%, v/v) water-methanol as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min–1. When the method was used for quantification of magnolol and honokiol in Magnoliae Cortex recovery ranged from 98.1 to 106.1%, RSD was from 3.07 to 4.80%, and LOD for honokiol and magnolol were 0.94 and 1.14 ng mL–1, respectively.
Conversion (α) and the glass transition temperature (Tg) were investigated during the isothermal cure of endo-dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) with a Grubbs catalyst for different temperatures using differential scanning calorimetry. Conversion
vs. In (time) data at an arbitrary reference temperature were superposed by horizontal shift and the shift factors were used
to calculate an Arrhenius activation energy. Glass transition temperature vs. conversion data fell on a single curve independent of cure temperature, implying that reaction of the norbornene and cyclopentene
ring of DCPD proceeds in a sequential fashion. Implications of the isothermal reaction kinetics for self-healing composites
Authors:J. Ying, S. Liu, F. Guo, X. Zhou, and X. Xie
Polypropylene (PP) /ethylene-octene copolymer (POE) blends with different content of POE were prepared by mixing chamber of
a Haake torque rheometer. The crystallization behaviors and crystal structure of PP/POE blends were systematically investigated
by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). The
results showed that PP spherulites became defective and the crystallization behavior was influenced intensely with the introduction
of POE. At the low content of POE, the addition of POE decreases the apparent incubation period (Δti) and the apparent total crystallization period (Δtc) of PP in blends due to the heterogeneous nucleation of POE, and small amount of β-form PP crystals form because of the existence
of POE. However, at high content of POE, the addition of POE decreases the mobility of PP segments due to their strong intermolecular
interaction and chain entanglements, resulting in retarding the crystallization of PP, decreasing in the amount of β-form
PP crystals, and increasing in Δti and Δtc of PP in blends.
Authors:X. Geng, H. Gao, B. Wang, A. Liu, and X. Feng
Both calorimetric determination of displacement adsorption enthalpies ΔH and measurement of adsorbed amounts of lysozyme (Lyz) denatured by 1.8 mol L−1 guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) on a moderately hydrophobic packings at 298 K, pH 7.0 and various salt concentrations were
carried out. Based on the thermodynamics of stoichiometric displacement theory (SDT) the fractions of thermodynamic functions,
which related to four subprocesses of denatured protein refolding on the surface, were calculated and thermodynamic analysis
that which one of the subprocesses plays major role for contribution to the thermodynamic fractions was made in detail. The
moderately hydrophobic surface can provide denatured Lyz energy and make it gain more conformation with surface coverage or
salt concentration increment. The displacement adsorptions of denatured Lyz onto PEG-600 surface are exothermic, more structure-ordered
and enthalpy driven processes.
Authors:X. Cao, Z. Wang, X. Yang, Y. Liu, and C. Wang
The kinetics of protein thermal transition is of a significant interest from the standpoint of medical treatment. The effect
of sucrose (0–15 mass%) on bovine serum albumin denatured aggregation kinetics at high concentration was studied by the iso-conversional
method and the master plots method using differential scanning calorimetry. The observed aggregation was irreversible and
conformed to the simple order reaction. The denaturation temperature (Tm), the kinetic triplets all increased as the sucrose concentration increased, which indicated the remarkable stabilization
effect of sucrose. The study purpose is to provide new opportunities in exploring aggregation kinetics mechanisms in the presence
Authors:X. Cao, X. Yang, J. Shi, Y. Liu, and C. Wang
The effect of glucose (0–15 mass%) on the kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) denatured aggregation at high concentration
in aqueous solution has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The observed denatured aggregation process was
irreversible and could be characterized by a denaturation temperature (Tm), apparent activation energy (Ea), the approximate order of reaction, and pre-exponential factor (A). As the glucose concentration increased from 0 to 15 mass%, Tm increased, Ea also increased from 514.59409±6.61489 to 548.48611±7.81302 kJ mol−1, and A/s−1 increased from 1.24239E79 to 5.59975E83. The stabilization increased with an increasing concentration of glucose, which was
attributed to its ability to alter protein denatured aggregation kinetics.
The kinetic analysis was carried out using a composite procedure involving the iso-conversional method and the master plots
method. The iso-conversional method indicated that denatured aggregation of BSA in the presence and absence of glucose should
conform to single reaction model. The master plots method suggested that the simple order reaction model best describe the
process. This study shows the combination of iso-conversional method and the master plots method can be used to quantitatively
model the denatured aggregation mechanism of the BSA in the presence and absence of glucose.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Yang, X. Li, W. Liu, A. Gao, and L. Li
Youzimai is a widespread wheat landrace and has been used extensively in breeding programs in China. In order to assess the genetic variation between and within Youzimai accessions, samples of 31 landrace accessions of wheat, all called ‘Youzimai’, were collected from 6 geographic regions in China and evaluated using morphological traits, seedling resistance to powdery mildew, gliadin and microsatellite markers. Typical differences among accessions were observed in morphological characteristics. Forty-five (58.4%) of 77 assayed SSR markers showed polymorphism over the entire collection and total 226 alleles were identified with an average of 5.02 alleles per locus. SSR data indicated that the accessions from Hebei province were the most diverse, as evidenced by greatest number of region-specific alleles and highest diversity index. These accessions, therefore, probably experienced the most substantial morphological and molecular evolution as a result of various natural and anthropomorphic influences. On the other hand, differentiation in gliadin phenotypes was found among seeds within 80.6% of total accessions and average 61.5% of entire collections showed heterogeneous and comprised resistant plants in reaction to powdery mildew, suggesting the presence of a wide diversity within the wheat landrace. By developing an intimate knowledge of the available wheat genotypes, appropriate selections can be made for commercial application in order to conserve and exploit the diversity of the wheat landraces.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Li, X. Yang, W. Liu, and L. Li
A reborn interest has occurred during the last decade toward wheat landraces for broadening genetic basis of modern wheat cultivars. The investigation of molecular traits within and between existing landraces of wheat can help scientists to develop appropriate strategies for their efficient maintenance and exploitation. The present study dealt with the gliadin characterization of forty-seven wheat landraces collected from wheat mainly planted areas of China, each of which was represented by a sample of at least 43 individuals. Twelve accessions selected on the basis of gliadin analysis were investigated further using 21 SSR markers. The results proved that landraces of wheat are a mixture of variable individuals genetically distinguishable from each other. Twelve of the analyzed 47 accessions were observed to be homogeneous, while 35 (74.5%) of them were heterogeneous in their gliadin composition. In total, 122 gliadin pattern were observed. On average, 10.1% (Gst) of the total variation arose from differentiation among regions, and 89.9% was attributed to within-region variation. Furthermore, nineteen of the 21 SSR markers were polymorphic across all the populations. The total number of the amplified DNA products was 110, with a mean of 6.11 alleles per locus. The values of genetic diversity within each landrace population varied from 0.006 to 0.351. Implications for the management of this valuable genetic resource are discussed.