Contamination and adsorption of trace elements during storage of natural water samples in polyethylene containers have been studied. Variations of concentrations of 29 elements in pH=1.5 natural water samples stored in polyethylene bottles for 15 and 30 days respectively were determined by the method of freeze-drying preconcentration and NAA. The percentage adsorption loss of radioactive indicators60Co,124Sb,65Zn,75Se,134Cs and46Sc in the pH=1.5–8.0 reservoir water, tap water and distilled water stored for 1–2 months were also determined. The optimized storage condition for natural water is obtained.
In 1999 investigation, the needles of Sabina chinesis L. from 11 hot spot tourist cities extending over China were collected as biomonitors for evaluation of atmospheric elemental differences in those cities. Thirty five elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experimental data reflected the environmental alteration in the cities that have different geographical position, population burden and industrialized level. Eventually by using the data processed by factor analysis (FA) and subsequent cluster analysis (CA), the cities were grouped into six sorts of the urban atmospheric deposition with corresponding elements.
T-21 silica, a commonly used encapsulation material in neutron activation analysis of small samples, was analyzed by INAA to determine trace levels of the following impurities: Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Br, Sb, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Hf and Au. In the unprocessed form supplied by the manufacturer, pieces of T-21 weighing 50 mg contain 6·10–2
g Na; 9·10–3
g Fe; 3·10–7–7·10–6
g light REE, Sc and Hf and 4·10–8
g Tb and Au. In a series of glass-blowing steps, in which unfiltered gases were used for fuel, and cleaning steps, in which reagent grade aqua regia was used, irradiation vials were produced which contain higher average levels of Sc, La, Sm, Tb and Hf, by factors ranging from 1.3 for Sm to 11.5 for La, and lower average levels of Co, Na and Fe, by factors of 1.4, 2.0 and 4.0, respectively, than the unprocessed material. These contamination levels lead to blank corrections of 21% for La, 2.6% for Ce and 3.0% for Hf in 40 g samples of refractory inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites, if counted in their irradiation vials.
Molecular activation analysis (MAA) of iridium in geological samples, based on a combination of a newly-developed chemical sequential dissolution method and radiochemical and instrumental NAA, was described to study the distribution pattern and chemical species of iridium in various fractions (soluble carbonate, metal, sulfide, oxide, silicate and acid-insoluble residue) of geological boundary samples, meteorites, ultrabasic rock and volcanic lava. The correlations of Ir with Au, Os, siderophile, chalcophile and lithophile elements were discussed. In addition, the role of kerogen and noble-nugget in the Ir enrichment was scrutinized. The MAA results of Ir favors a mixed effect of asteroid impact, volcanic eruption and post-depositional redistribution to interpret the extant Ir anomaly at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer.
Authors:C. Chai, S. Ma, X. Mao, K. Liao, and W. Liu
Two different radiochemical procedures were developed: chelate ion resin exchange and amine solvent extraction. Two kinds of new Chinese chelate resins (NANKAI-3926 and BEI-5) and a new longchain primary amine N1923 were compared with the Srafion NMRR and the tertiary amine N235 in absorption performance of noble metals, respectively. Influences of various experimental conditions, e. g. sample digestion, acidity, equilibrium time, as well as elution of noble metals, on analytical sensitivity and chemical yield were discussed. Combining with neutron activation, the radiochemical separation procedures developed were used to determine the noble metal contents in the geological samples from Permian/Triassic boundary in South China.
Authors:S. Ma, C. Chai, X. Mao, H. Peng, K. Lu, X. Xiao, and Z. Ouyang
Chemical elemental compositions of some silicate, magnetic and glass spherules were investigated with INAA. The elements determined include Os, Ir, Ni, Co, Fe, Cr, Au, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu and Sc etc. The elemental correlation, as well as their enrichment (or depletion) factors relative to Cl chondrite were examined. The high concentrations of the refractory siderophile elements contained in these spherules support the proposal that they originate from extraterrestrial substances. Some useful chemical criteria for identifying the sources of silicate, magnetic and glass spherules are put forward.
Authors:L. Fu, Y. Chen, H. Du, J. Mao, X. Shi, and S. Li
A novel double -diketone 1,6-bis(1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-oxo-pyrazol-4-yl) hexanedione-[1,6] (BPMOPH) was further studied on its coordination compounds with uranium and thorium, respectively. The IR, UV, and1H-NMR spectra were examined, and the proposed structure is discussed.
Authors:C. Chai, S. Ma, X. Mao, Y. Zhou, Y. Sun, D. Xu, Q. Zhang, and Z. Yang
Although Ir anomaly has been discovered in a number of C/T boundaries in the world, no positive results of this anomaly in Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary were given. There are many well-developed P/T sections in South China. One of representative sections is located at the Baoqing quarry, Meishan Town, Changxin County, Zhejiang Province. Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pt, Cu and Mo were determined by the radiochemical procedure developed in our laboratory. (1) Besides those accessible by INAA. The results reveal that the refractory siderophile and other chalcophile elements have certain enrichment near and at the boundary layer. However, the Ir/Au and other element abundance ratios fail to accord with the extraterrestrial values. The nature of the boundary event was discussed in terms of elemental geochemistry.
Authors:X. Mao, C. Chai, S. Ma, Z. Yang, D. Xu, Y. Sun, and Q. Zhang
The concentrations of 14 elements, including Ir, Au, Co, Cr, Fe, Sr, Rb, K, Ta, Zn, Sb, Ba, Sc and Se, in the Wuxi fallen ice were determined by neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show that the relative concentration ratios of Ir/Co, Ir/Cr and Ir/Sc etc. in the ice water (0.0069, 0.00024 and 0.11, respectively) are quite close to those of Type C1 chondrite (0.0102, 0.00021 and 0.092, respectively), which implies that the fallen ice might be a piece of extraterrestrial substance.
Authors:S. Hu, Z. Chai, X. Mao, H. Oy, H. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Huang
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) were used to study the loss
and recuperation of inorganic elements of osteoporotic rat bone and the effects of Zhugu Capsule. The results of the animal
experiments showed that there was greater loss of multiple elements in cancellous bone than in cortical bone that was difficult
to be improved. Yet in the mid-shaft femur, which is mainly consisted of cortical bone, the contents of multiple elements
were notably recuperated. Zhugu Capsule could increase the content of not only of Ca, but also Zn and Sr. Further, it could
also improve the distribution of these elements in femur.