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  • Author or Editor: X. Meng x
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Lanzhou Alkaline Stretched Noodles (LASN) has introduced by Meng et al. in previous research paper (2007). In order to discover the LASN specialty wheat quality requirement for allelic variations at Glu-1 of northwest China spring wheats, 2 northwest China spring wheat cultivars and 39 elite F6 breeding lines were adopted to determine the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition by one step one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) based on the protocol of Singh et al. (1991). The results showed that the wheat quality and LASN quality were characterised by Glu-1 alleles significantly. Glu-A1 /1 correlated to high protein content and better extensibility (L) than other allelic variations. Glu-A1 /1, Glu-B1 /17+18 and Glu-D1 /5+10 were beneficial to dough strength (W), meanwhile Glu-A1 /2* and Glu-D1 /5+10 were good to dough tenacity (P). Glu-D1 /5+10 strongly correlated to high volume of SDS-sediment significantly. Allelic variations at Glu-A1 / (1, 2*), Glu-B1 /17+18 and Glu-D1 /5+10 were beneficial alleles for wheat quality as well as LASN quality. However, Glu-A1 /null and Glu-D1 /2+12 were inferior alleles for wheat quality and LASN quality.

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A novel thermokinetic research method for determination of the rate constant of a reaction taking place in a batch conduction calorimeter under isothermal conditions is proposed: the double-thermoanalytical curve method. The method needs only the characteristic time parameter t m, the peak height Δm at time t m and the peak area a*m after time t m for two thermoanalytical curves measured with different initial concentrations of the reactants: it conveniently calculates the rate constants. The thermokinetics of four reaction systems were studied with this method, and its validity was verified by the experimental results.

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A novel method for the determination of rate constants of reactions, the time-variable method, is proposed in this paper. The method needs only three time points (t), peak heights () and pre-peak areas (), obtained from the measured thermoanalytical curve. It does not require the thermokinetic reaction to be completed. It utilizes data-processing on a computer to give the rate constants. Four reaction systems, including a first-order reaction, second-order reactions (with equal concentrations and with unequal concentrations) and a third-order reaction, were studied with this method. The method was validated and its theoretical basis was verified by the experimental results.

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Lanzou Alkaline Stretched Noodles (LASN) was a traditional staple food in northwest China for nearly 90 years. LASN specialty wheat breeding has become an important target since 1990s. In order to discover the LASN specialty wheat quality requirement for allelic variations at Glu-3 of northwest China spring wheats. Two northwest China spring wheat cultivars and 39 elite F6 breeding lines were adopted to determine the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) composition by one step one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) basing on the protocol of Singh et al. (1991). The results showed that Glu-A3d and Glu-B3g were correlated to high protein content, high volume of SDS-sediment and super dough strength (W). While Glu-A3a was bad to dry gluten content and SDS-sediment as well as dough properties such as dough strength (W) and dough tenacity (P). Moreover, Glu-B3j has not significant influence on flour quality, but it has the negative effect on dough strength (W) and dough extensibility (L). As for LASN quality, Glu-A3d and Glu-B3g were beneficial alleles and Glu-A3a was unbeneficial alleles for LASN quality.

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A novel solid complex, formulated as Ho(PDC)3 (o-phen), has been obtained from the reaction of hydrate holmium chloride, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phenH2O) in absolute ethanol, which was characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DTG and IR spectrum. The enthalpy change of the reaction of complex formation from a solution of the reagents, Δr H m θ (sol), and the molar heat capacity of the complex, c m, were determined as being –19.1610.051 kJ mol–1 and 79.2641.218 J mol–1 K–1 at 298.15 K by using an RD-496 III heat conduction microcalorimeter. The enthalpy change of complex formation from the reaction of the reagents in the solid phase, Δr H m θ(s), was calculated as being (23.9810.339) kJ mol–1 on the basis of an appropriate thermochemical cycle and other auxiliary thermodynamic data. The thermodynamics of reaction of formation of the complex was investigated by the reaction in solution at the temperature range of 292.15–301.15 K. The constant-volume combustion energy of the complex, Δc U, was determined as being –16788.467.74 kJ mol–1 by an RBC-II type rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Its standard enthalpy of combustion, Δc H m θ, and standard enthalpy of formation, Δf H m θ, were calculated to be –16803.957.74 and –1115.428.94 kJ mol–1, respectively.

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Renal injury is reported to have a high mortality rate. Additionally, there are several limitations to current conventional treatments that are used to manage it. This study evaluated the protective effect of hesperidin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced kidney injury in rats. Renal injury was induced by generating I/R in kidney tissues. Rats were then treated with hesperidin at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg intravenously 1 day after surgery for a period of 14 days. The effect of hesperidin on renal function, serum mediators of inflammation, and levels of oxidative stress in renal tissues were observed in rat kidney tissues after I/R-induced kidney injury. Moreover, protein expression and mRNA expression in kidney tissues were determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was done for histopathological observation of kidney tissues. The data suggest that the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the serum of hesperidin-treated rats were lower than in the I/R group. Treatment with hesperidin also ameliorated the altered level of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in I/R-induced renal-injured rats. The expression of p-IκBα, caspase-3, NF-κB p65, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) protein, TLR-4 mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly reduced in the renal tissues of hesperidin-treated rats. Histopathological findings also revealed that treatment with hesperidin attenuated the renal injury in I/R kidney-injured rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that hesperidin protects against renal injury induced by I/R by involving TLR-4/NF-κB/iNOS signaling.

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On the basis of the theory of thermokinetics proposed in the literature, a novel thermokinetic method for determination of the reaction rate, the characteristic parameter method, is proposed in this paper. Mathematical models were established to determine the kinetic parameters and rate constants. In order to test the validity of this method, the saponifications of ethyl benzoate, ethyl acetate and ethyl propionate, and the formation of hexamethylenetetramine were studied with this method. The rate constants calculated with this method are in agreement with those in the literature, and the characteristic parameter method is therefore believed to be correct.In the light of the characteristic parameter method, we have developed further two thermo-kinetic methods, the thermoanalytical single and multi-curve methods, which are convenient for simultaneous determination of the reaction order and the rate constant. The reaction orders and rate constants of the saponifications of ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate and the ring-opening reaction of epichlorohydrin with hydrobromic acid were determined with these methods, and their validity was verified by the experimental results.

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This paper presents a novel data processing method for thermokinetics of faster first-order reaction on the basis of the double-parameter theoretical model of a conduction calorimeter, in which the rate constant of a first-order reaction can be calculated from only four peak height data from the same thermoanalytical curve without using any peak-area. The saponifications of ethyl acetate and methyl acetate in aqueous solution and ethyl benzoate in aqueous alcohol have been studied to test the validity of this method. The rate constants calculated with this method are in fair agreement with those in literature; hence the validity of this method is demonstrated.

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Highly oriented single crystal antimony nanowire arrays have been synthesized within anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by pulsed electrodeposition. Thermal behavior and oxidation analysis of the antimony nanowires have been investigated by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in Ar and air atmosphere, respectively. Compared to bulk antimony, the antimony nanowires exhibit a lower sublimation temperature at 496.4°C. Evident oxidation of the Sb nanowires occurs at 429.8°C in air atmosphere and α-Sb2O4 nanowires have been obtained as the oxidation product. The results indicate that the sublimation and the oxidation of the antimony nanowires in the AAO template is a slow multi-step process. The present results are of relevance when processing antimony nanowries for thermoelectric applications at high temperatures.

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Polyimide BTDA-ODA sample was prepared by polycondensation or step-growth polymerization method. Its low temperature heat capacities were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range between 80 and 400 K. No thermal anomaly was found in this temperature range. A DSC experiment was conducted in the temperature region from 373 to 673 K. There was not phase change or decomposition phenomena in this temperature range. However two glass transitions were found at 420.16 and 564.38 K. Corresponding heat capacity increments were 0.068 and 0.824 J g–1 K–1, respectively. To study the decomposition characteristics of BTDA-ODA, a TG experiment was carried out and it was found that this polyimide started to decompose at ca 673 K.

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