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The hypothesis of niche differentiation with respect to resources is considered to be one of the most influential explanations for the maintenance of species diversity. The hypothesis has been examined extensively by testing its prediction of species-habitat association, which posits that the spatial distribution of species is highly correlated with environmental variables. However, we argue that widespread evidence of the species-habitat association lacks adequate rigor to justify the niche differentiation hypothesis. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent the observed species-habitat association could be caused by ecological processes other than niche differentiation, in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. The niche differentiation hypothesis was evaluated by testing the species-habitat association and performing a cross-evaluation of the habitat-diversity expectation, which posits that a strong positive correlation exists between species diversity and habitat complexity. Failure to support the habitat-diversity expectation would at a minimum indicate that the niche differentiation hypothesis might not be the main underlying process of species distribution, despite prevalence of the species-habitat association in the same plot. Our analysis revealed that distributions of most species (86.11%) in the plot were significantly associated with at least one of eight topographical and soil nutrient variables. However, there was almost no significant positive correlation between species diversity and habitat complexity at various spatial scales in the same plot. The results indicate that additional caution is warranted when interpreting the species-habitat association from the niche differentiation perspective. A significant species-habitat association indicates only a species’ habitat preference. The association may reveal nothing about interspecific differences in habitat preference, which is a requirement of the niche differentiation hypothesis.

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A complex of neodymium perchloric acid coordinated with L-glutamic acid and imidazole, [Nd(Glu)(H2O)5(Im)3](ClO4)6·2H2O was synthesized and characterized by IR and elements analysis for the first time. The thermodynamic properties of the complex were studied with an automatic adiabatic calorimeter and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Glass transition and phase transition were discovered at 221.83 and 245.45 K, respectively. The glass transition was interpreted as a freezing-in phenomenon of the reorientational motion of ClO4 ions and the phase transition was attributed to the orientational order/disorder process of ClO4 ions. The heat capacities of the complex were measured with the automatic adiabatic calorimeter and the thermodynamic functions [H T-H 298.15] and [S T-S 298.15] were derived in the temperature range from 80 to 390 K with temperature interval of 5 K. Thermal decomposition behavior of the complex in nitrogen atmosphere was studied by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

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The molar heat capacity C p,m of 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride was measured in the temperature range from T=80 to 390 K with a small sample automated adiabatic calorimeter. The melting point T m, the molar enthalpy Δfus H m and the entropy Δfus S m of fusion for the compound were determined to be 303.80 K, 14.71 kJ mol−1 and 48.43 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. The thermodynamic functions [H T-H 273.15] and [S T-S 273.15] were derived in the temperature range from T=80 to 385 K with temperature interval of 5 K. The thermal stability of the compound was investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), when the process of the mass-loss was due to the evaporation, instead of its thermal decomposition.

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Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract shionone from Aster tataricus L. f. The effect of various parameters, i.e., temperature, pressure and sample particle size on yield was investigated with an analytical-scale SFE system to find the optimal conditions. The process was then scaled up by 50 times with a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of temperature 40 °C, pressure 30 MPa, and a sample particle size of 40–60 mesh. Then preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for isolation and purification of shionone from the SFE extract with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol (2:1, volume ratio). The separation produced a total of 75 mg of shionone from 500 mg of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 98.7%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 92% recovery. The structure of shionone was identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR).

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The kinetic characteristic of thermal decomposition of the Emulsion Explosive Base Containing Fe and Mn elements (EEBCFM) which was used to prepare nano-MnFe2O4 particles via detonation method was investigated by means of non-isothermal DSC and TG methods at various heating rates of 2.5, 5 and 7.5°C min−1respectively under the atmosphere of dynamic air from room temperature to 400°C. The results indicated that the EEBCFM was sensitive to temperature, especially to heating rate and could decompose at the temperature up to 60°C. The maximum speed of decomposition (dα/dT)m at the heating rate of 5 and 7.5°C min−1 was more than 10 times of that at 2.5°C min−1 and nearly 10 times of that of the second-category coal mine permitted commercial emulsion explosive (SCPCEE). The plenty of metal ions could seriously reduce the thermal stability of emulsion explosive, and the decomposition reaction in the conversion degree range of 0.0∼0.6 was most probably controlled by nucleation and growth mechanism and the mechanism function could be described with Avrami-Erofeev equation with n=2. When the fractional extent of reaction α>0.6, the combustion of oil phase primarily controlled the decomposition reaction.

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The thermal behaviors of four organic solvents with/without LiPF6 were measured by C80 microcalorimeter at a 0.2�C min−1 heating rate. With the addition of 1 M LiPF6, the ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) show the exothermic peaks at elevated temperature, which lessen their stabilities. The exothermic peak temperatures of EC and PC based LiPF6 solutions are at 212 and 223�C, respectively, in argon filled vessel. However, two endothermic peak temperatures were detected in diethyl carbonate (DEC) based LiPF6 solution at 182 and 252.5�C, respectively, in argon filled vessel. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187�C in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. Consequently, it is concluded that LiPF6 play a key role in the thermal behavior of its organic solution.

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The dilution enthalpies of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol in aqueous sodium chloride solution at various concentrations have been determined by isothermal microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients over a quite large range of concentration of aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been calculated according to the excess enthalpy concept. The results show that enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients (h 2) of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol are positive in aqueous sodium chloride solution and become more positive with increase of the concentration of sodium chloride. The results are interpreted in terms of the different conformations of the two polyols, solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions involved by solvent effects.

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Abstract  

The isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from traditional Chinese drugs of Phellodendri Cortex, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Corydalis Yanhusuo and Corydalis Bungeana. The power-time curves of growth of E. coli at different concentrations of isoquinoline alkaloid at 37�C were determined by a 2277 Thermal Activity Monitor. The rate constant of bacteriostastic activity was calculated. The relationship between growth rate constant and concentration was established. The optimum bacteriostastic concentration was determined. Experimental results have indicated that all the isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from the four kinds of traditional Chinese drugs have bacteriostastic activity and the order is Phellodendri Cortex>Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae>Corydalis Yanhusuo>Corydalis Bungeana.

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