Authors:D. Qi, X. Wieneke, X. Zhou, X. Jiang, and P. Xue
Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is a process of soil desertification, which leads to the decline of soil quality and biomass. We conducted a plant community survey in KRD areas in Chongqing, China. Our aims were to determine key soil properties that shape plant communities and to identify essential leaf functional traits (LFTs) in responding to the progression of KRD. The vegetation survey was carried in a total of twenty study sites (five replicates for four stages of KRD) in the Wushan County in Chongqing, China. Leaves were collected from all the species in every site and measured/calculated for five LFTs, namely, specific leaf area, leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf tissue density, and leaf dry matter content. Soil samples were collected in triplicates in each site to measure soil properties. We found that the overall richness and diversity of community decreased along with the progression of KRD. Phanerophytes predominated in all the KRD areas. Soil pH was the main determinant of vegetation structure. Leaves with lower area yet higher density had the optimal adaptability in KRD regions, which can be planted as pioneer vegetation to restore land in KRD regions.
The present paper establishes a complete result on approximation by rational functions with prescribed numerator degree in
Lpspaces for 1 < p < ∞ and proves that if f(x)∈Lp[-1,1] changes sign exactly l times in (-1,1), then there exists r(x)∈Rnl such that
where Rnl indicates all rational functions whose denominators consist of polynomials of degree n and numerators polynomials of degree l, and Cp, l,b is a positive constant depending only on p, l and b which relates to the distance among the sign change points of f(x) and will be given in 3.
Maize seeds from inbred line Mo17, susceptible to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), were investigated for SCMV seed transmission. The seed quality significantly influenced the seed transmission rate. There were more infected seedlings derived from larger seeds than smaller seeds in both golden (G) and buff (B) seed groups, the proportion of infected seedlings in G1 was similar to G2 and B1, and significantly higher than the others (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). While the proportion of SCMV seed transmission was higher in golden (3.9%) than buff seeds groups (2.3%), and there were significantly difference (P < 0.05) between the both colors seeds. However the percentage of infected seedlings was closely related to the location of seeds on ears, most infected seedlings were derived from seeds of the middle (Part III) and mid-base regions (Part IV), and the both parts (Parts III and IV) were significantly higher than that of Part I (P < 0.05). Fisher’s exact test indicated that the seed quality was associated significantly with the efficiency of SCMV seed transmission.
A three-dimensional leaching model was developed to describe the leaching of radionuclide from a cement-based concrete solid. The film mass transfer and interparticle diffusion were considered simultaneously. On the basis of the derived model the long-term behavior of radium-226 leaching from the waste solid has been quantitatively investigated.
Ultrahigh molecular mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) is filled with carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) by solution in the presence of maleic
anhydride grafted styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene copolymer (MA-SEBS) as a compatibilizer. The UHMMPE/CNT composites
crystallized from melt were prepared at a cooling rate of 20C min-1. The melting and crystallization behaviors of UHMMPE/ CNT composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry.
The results showed that onset melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (Xc) of UHMMPE/CNT composites crystallized from solution are higher than those from melt due to the larger crystalline lamellar
thickness. The onset crystallization temperature (Tc) of UHMMPE/CNT composites tends to shift to higher temperature region with increasing CNT content in the composites. Tm and
Tc of UHMMPE phase in UHMMPE/CNT composites decrease with the addition of MA-SEBS. Moreover, the crystallization rate of UHMMPE
phase in UHMMPE/CNT composite is increased due to the introduction of CNTs. MA-SEBS acts as compatilizer, enhances the dispersion
of CNTs in the UHMMPE matrix. Thereby, the crystallization rate of UHMMPE phase in UHMMPE/CNT composite is further increased
with the addition of MA-SEBS.
Authors:J. Ying, S. Liu, F. Guo, X. Zhou, and X. Xie
Polypropylene (PP) /ethylene-octene copolymer (POE) blends with different content of POE were prepared by mixing chamber of
a Haake torque rheometer. The crystallization behaviors and crystal structure of PP/POE blends were systematically investigated
by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). The
results showed that PP spherulites became defective and the crystallization behavior was influenced intensely with the introduction
of POE. At the low content of POE, the addition of POE decreases the apparent incubation period (Δti) and the apparent total crystallization period (Δtc) of PP in blends due to the heterogeneous nucleation of POE, and small amount of β-form PP crystals form because of the existence
of POE. However, at high content of POE, the addition of POE decreases the mobility of PP segments due to their strong intermolecular
interaction and chain entanglements, resulting in retarding the crystallization of PP, decreasing in the amount of β-form
PP crystals, and increasing in Δti and Δtc of PP in blends.
It is proposed to use 14 MeV neutrons tagged by the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique (APnTOF) to identify
the fillers of unexploded ordnances (UXO) by characterizing their carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contents. To facilitate the
design and construction of a prototype system, a preliminary simulation model was developed, using the Geant4 toolkit. This
work established the toolkit environment for (a) generating tagged neutrons, (b) their transport and interactions within a
sample to induce emission and detection of characteristic gamma-rays, and (c) 2D and 3D-image reconstruction of the interrogated
object using the neutron and gamma-ray time-of-flight information. Using the modeling, this article demonstrates the novelty
of the tagged-neutron approach for extracting useful signals with high signal-to-background discrimination of an object-of-interest
from that of its environment. Simulations indicated that an UXO filled with the RDX explosive, hexogen (C3H6O6N6), can be identified to a depth of 20 cm when buried in soil.
The thermal stability of lithium-ion battery cathode could substantially affect the safety of lithium-ion battery. In order
to disclose the decomposition kinetics of charged LiCoO2 used in lithium ion batteries, thermogravimetric analyzer (TG) and C80 microcalorimeter were employed in this study. Four
stages of mass losses were detected by TG and one main exothermic process was detected by C80 microcalorimeter for the charged
LiCoO2. The chemical reaction kinetics is supposed to fit by an Arrhenius law, and then the activation energy is calculated as Ea=148.87 and 88.87 kJ mol−1 based on TG and C80 data, respectively.
Authors:L. Li, X. Wang, J. Shen, L. Zhou, and T. Zhang
Adsorption microcalorimetry has been employed to study the interaction of ethylene with the reduced and oxidized Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts with different Ag contents to elucidate the modified effect of Ag towards the hydrocarbon processing on platinum
catalysts. In addition, microcalorimetric adsorption of H2, O2, CO and FTIR of CO adsorption were conducted to investigate the influence of Ag on the surface structure of Pt catalyst.
It is found from the microcalorimetric results of H2and O2adsorption that the addition of Ag to Pt/SiO2leads to the enrichment of Ag on the catalyst surface which decreases the size of Pt surface ensembles of Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts. The microcalorimetry and FTIR of CO adsorption indicates that there still exist sites for linear and bridged CO
adsorption on the surface of platinum catalysts simultaneously although Ag was incorporated into Pt/SiO2. The ethylene microcalorimetric results show that the decrease of ensemble size of Pt surface sites suppresses the formation
of dissociative species (ethylidyne) upon the chemisorption of C2H4on Pt-Ag/SiO2. The differential heat vs. uptake plots for C2H4adsorption on the oxygen-preadsorbed Pt/SiO2and Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts suggest that the incorporation of Ag to Pt/SiO2could decrease the ability for the oxidation of C2H4.