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Abstract  

By using 188Re as a radiotracer, the extraction behavior of Re(VII) by a tertiary amine extractant N-235 from HCl and the back-extraction behavior of Re(VII) by HNO3 and ammonia were studied. A chemical separation procedure, which combined the acid alumina column and solvent extraction was established. The procedure was rapid and efficient for the separation of 186Re from 186W irradiated by 16 MeV deuterons. No-carrier-added 186ReO4 saline solution with high specific volume activity was obtained. The overall recovery yield of 186Re was about 85%.

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Summary

A simple hydrolysis method has been developed for determination of phenylethanoid glycosides in Lamiophlomis rotata (L.R.). Different kinds of phenylethanoid glycosides were hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid solution to produce corresponding phenethyl alcohols and cinnamic acids, mainly containing hydroxytyrosol, homovanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl alcohol, caffeic acid, fumalic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The six analytes could be determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of mobile phase, pH and concentration of running buffer, detection wavelength, flow rate and injection volume were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the six hydrolyzates could be perfectly separated within 45 min. The response was linear over four orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 1 × 10−8 to 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1 for the analytes. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real sample Du-Yi-Wei capsule and Qi-Zheng-Yan-Tong patch, with satisfactory results.

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Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) have been established and validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight steroidal saponins in ten batches of Gongxuening capsule (GXN), a widely commercially available traditional Chinese preparation. The optimum chromatographic conditions entailed use of a Kromasil C18 column with acetonitrile-water (30:70 to 62:38, υ/υ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was 102°C and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.8 L min−1. Separation was successfully achieved within 25 min. LC-ESI-MSn was used for unequivocal identification of the constituents of the samples by comparison with reference compounds. The assay was fully validated for precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability, then successfully applied to quantification of the eight compounds in samples. The method could be effective for evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of GXN.

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Abstract  

On the basis of the theory of thermokinetics proposed in the literature, a novel thermokinetic method for determination of the reaction rate, the characteristic parameter method, is proposed in this paper. Mathematical models were established to determine the kinetic parameters and rate constants. In order to test the validity of this method, the saponifications of ethyl benzoate, ethyl acetate and ethyl propionate, and the formation of hexamethylenetetramine were studied with this method. The rate constants calculated with this method are in agreement with those in the literature, and the characteristic parameter method is therefore believed to be correct.In the light of the characteristic parameter method, we have developed further two thermo-kinetic methods, the thermoanalytical single and multi-curve methods, which are convenient for simultaneous determination of the reaction order and the rate constant. The reaction orders and rate constants of the saponifications of ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate and the ring-opening reaction of epichlorohydrin with hydrobromic acid were determined with these methods, and their validity was verified by the experimental results.

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Summary

1,7-Dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone (X1) and 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone (X2) are two important xanthones of the Tibetan medicinal plant Gentianopsis paludosa (Hook. f.) Ma. They are very similar in structure, the only difference being exchange of OH and OCH3 at the 7 and 8 positions. By calculations based on the geometry of the molecules using the MM+ force field, the different distances between the hydroxyl groups of the two xanthones were obtained (4.64774 Å for X2 and 7.19412 Å for X1), therefore, the two hydroxyl groups of X1 should freely interact with more water molecules than those of X2 in aqueous solution. In other words, X2 is more hydrophobic than X1. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was therefore chosen for separation of the compounds. The optimum separation conditions were: 20 mm borate + 20 mm SDS (pH 9.8) as running buffer, 17.5 kV applied potential, and detection wavelength 260 nm. The two xanthones were well separated in 9.0 min, with Gaussian peak shapes. The repeatability of the MEKC method (expressed as RSD) for X1 and X2 was 0.9 and 1.1%, respectively, for migration time, and 3.1 and 1.4% for peak area. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.41 μg mL−1 for X1 and 0.82 μg mL−1 for X2. The recovery of the MEKC method for the two xanthones was also satisfactory.

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Abstract  

The stability of β-cyclodextrinethyl benzoate6H2O(β-CDC6H5COOC2H56H2O) was investigated by TG and DSC. The mass loss takes place in three stages: the dehydration occurs at 50-120C; the dissociation of β-CDC6H5COOC2H5occurs at 200-260C; the decomposition of β-CD begins at 280C. The kinetics of the dissociation of β-CDC6H5COOC2H5in a dry nitrogen flow was studied by means of thermogravimetry both at constant temperature and linearly increasing temperature. The results show that the dissociation of β-CDC6H5COOC2H5is dominated by a three-dimensional diffusion process (D3). The activation energy E is 116.19 kJ mol-1and the pre-exponential factor A 6.5358109min-1. Cyclodextrin is able to form inclusion complexes with a great variety of guest molecules, and the studies focus on the energy of binding between cyclodextrin and the guest molecule. In this paper, the β-cyclodextrinethyl benzoate inclusion complex was studied by fluorescence spectrophotometry and infrared absorption spectroscopy, and the results show that the stable energy of inclusion complexes of β-CD with weakly polar guest molecules consists mainly of van der Waals interaction.

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Five giant embryo mutants, described as MH-gel, MH-ge2, MH-ge3, MH-ge4 and MH-ge5 , which were derived from the same indica rice cv . ‘Minghui 86’ and characterized by 2.0, 1.88, 2.08, 1.93 and 1.88 times enlarged embryo than that of wild type, were selected for the current study. The mutated giant embryos were controlled by a single recessive gene, and except mutated locus with MH-ge1 other four loci were allelic to each other and the previous reported locus ge in japonica rice cv . ‘Kinmaze’. No obvious differences in physicochemical properties such as apparent amylose content (AAC), alkali spreading value (ASV), gel consistency (GC), and starch paste viscosity were observed between giant embryo mutants and wild type. Significant increases in the contents of crude lipid (LC), crude protein (PC), Vitamin B1 (V B1 ), Vitamin B2 (V B2 ), Vitamin E (V E ), essential amino acids such as Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp), Glutamic acid (Glu), Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), and mineral elements such as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) were detected in brown rice (BR) of giant embryo mutants. The amounts of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, were similar in the BR of giant embryo mutants and wild type, and more GABA content was observed in germinated brown rice (GBR) than BR. Significant enrichments were detected in the GBR of giant embryo mutants, basically corresponding to the enlarged embryo.

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The introgressed alien chromosome in BC 10 F 5 progeny of the cross between common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) (2n=7X=70) [syn. Thinopyrum ponticum (Popd.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey] was determined by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe in GISH and repeat sequence pAs1, pSc119.2 as probes in FISH, and molecular marker techniques. The results revealed that the line was a chromosome additional line in which a pair of the chromosomes added was composed of chromosome segment from E-genome of A. elongatum and short arm of 5B of common wheat cultivar Gao 38 identified by E-genome-specific primers. Powdery mildew test showed the line was highly resistant to powdery mildew as its A. elongatum parent and this indicated that the gene of resistant to powdery mildew might come from A. elongatum and localized on E-genome.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: N. Zhang, R.Q. Pan, J.J. Liu, X.L. Zhang, Q.N. Su, F. Cui, C.H. Zhao, L.Q. Song, J. Ji, and J.M. Li

Plants with deficiency in Gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis pathway are sensitive to exogenous GA3, while those with deficiency in GAs signaling pathway are insensitive to exogenous GA3. Thus, exogenous GA3 test is often used to verify whether the reduced height (Rht) gene is involved in GAs biosynthesis or signaling pathway. In the present study, we identified the genetic factors responsive to exogenous GA3 at the seedling stage of common wheat and analyzed the response of the plant height related quantitative trait loci (QTL) to GA3 to understand the GAs pathways the Rht participated in. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between KN9204 and J411 with different response to exogenous GA3 were used to screen QTL for the sensitivity of coleoptile length (SCL) and the sensitivity of seedling plant height (SSPH) to exogenous GA3. Two additive QTL and two pairs of epistatic QTL for SCL were identified, meanwhile, two additive QTL and three pairs of epistatic QTL for SSPH were detected. For the adult plant height (PH) investigated in two environments, six additive QTL were identified. Three QTL qScl-4B, qSsph-4B and qPh-4B were mapped in one cluster near the functional marker Rht-B1b. When PH were conditional on SSPH, the absolute additive effect value of qPh-4B and qPh-6B were reduced, suggesting that the Rhts in both two QTL were insensitive to exogenous GA3, while the additive effect values of qPh-2B, qPh-3A, qPh-3D and qPh-5A were not significantly changed, indicating that the Rhts in these QTL were sensitive to exogenous GA3, or they were not expressed at the seedling stage.

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