A compute program MULTINAA was developed to facilitate the evaluation of NAA data. It is written for the VAX/VMS syste and opeates in the Canberra/ND Genie spectroscopy software environment. MULTIINAA can be appliede to relative,k0-, monostandard (modified) and absolute methods, including the fast neutron threshold reaction. For each calculation, the available standardizations can be used individually or mixed. In all the standardization modes MULTINAA fetches the data directly from the -ray spectra and libraries, thus reducing the manual work to a minimum. MULTINAA is flexibkle to meet various situations in NAA practical work. The required neutron flux parameters all the non-relative methods are supplied by an accompanying program MULTIFLUX.
Small-scale vegetation patterns are frequently the results of plant-plant interactions such as facilitation and competition. Facilitation should be particularly pronounced when both abiotic and biotic stresses are high, but few studies were conducted in such habitats. In heavily-grazed pastures on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, an area with both high abiotic stress and strong biotic disturbance, we made relevés of herb species both beneath and outside canopies of three shrub species (Spiraea alpina, Sibiraea angustata and Potentilla fruticosa) differing in palatability and canopy structure. Herb species richness (S), pooled cover (PC) of all species, number of flowering species (FS) and number of inflorescences of all species (IN) were greater outside than beneath the shrub canopies. Evenness (J), in contrast, was smaller outside, while Shannon’s diversity index (H) was the same. Differences in S and J between plots beneath and outside the shrub canopies were greater in the case of P. fruticosa than in the cases of S. angustata and S. alpina, but differences in PC, FS or IN did not depend on the shrub species. Among the common species (frequency ≥6), 47–85% were equally frequent beneath and outside the shrubs, 13–39% were more frequent outside and 3–13% were more frequent beneath the shrubs. For the rarest species (frequency < 6), however, more species occurred beneath than outside the shrubs. The ordination diagram showed a clear separation between the relevés outside and beneath the shrubs and a gradient from P. fruticosa via S. alpina to S. angustata, accompanied by a distinct decrease in the extent of the difference between the vegetation beneath and outside the shrub canopies. In conclusion, the three shrub species facilitated some species in the herb layer and each shrub species had a specific impact, related to its canopy structure and palatability but also to the grazing pressure, which was greater around the P. fruticosa shrubs than around S. alpina and S. angustata.
Authors:Q. Chen, P. Li, B. Li, F. Yuan, X. Li, and J. Zhu
A rapid and sensitive method for the identification and quantification of yohimbine in Pausinystalia yohimbe is described. The method used is liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QIT/MS). The yohimbine standard solution was directly infused into the ion trap mass spectrometers (IT/MS) for collecting the MSn spectra. The major fragment ions of yohimbine were confirmed by MSn at m/z 355, 224, 212, and 144, in the positive-ion mode. The possible main fragment ion cleavage pathway was studied. Yohimbine provided good signals corresponding to the protonated molecular ion [M + H]+. The method is reliable and reproducible, and the detection limit is 0.1 ng mL-1. The method was validated in the concentration range 0.1–50 μg mL−1; the intra- and interday precision ranged from 1.36% to 2.73% and the accuracy was 96.5–108.2%. The mean recovery of yohimbine was 97.1–101% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) <1.93%. The LC-IT/MS method was successfully applied to determine the yohimbine in P. yohimbe.
Authors:Y. Chen, X. Li, F. Chen, Q. Zhu, and J. Luo
A rapid, simple, and practical high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of norephedrine (NME), norpseudoephedrine (NMP), ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE), and methylephedrine (ME) in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) which contained Ephedrae Herba (Ephedra). This analysis could be accomplished within 12.5 min with an Alltima Phenyl Column by isocratic elution using a mixture of KH2PO4 (20 mM)-acetonitrile (96:4, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.6 mL min−1 and a wavelength of 210 nm. This method was successfully applied to quantify ephedra alkaloids in both Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction and Ephedra decoction. The concentration of total ephedra alkaloids (4.62 mg mL−1) in Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction was much lower than that (7.10 mg mL−1) in Ephedra decoction. Furthermore, the concentration of NME, NMP, E, PE, and ME was significantly lower in Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction than that in Ephedra decoction, respectively. The method was easily acceptable and would be popular with most analytical laboratories.
Authors:D-Y Zhao, Q-Q Qi, X Long, X Li, F-X Chen, Y-B Yu, and X-L Zuo
Impaired intestinal barrier function has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). This study aimed to describe the intestinal ultrastructural findings in the intestinal mucosal layer of IBS-D patients.
In total, 10 healthy controls and 10 IBS-D patients were analyzed in this study. The mucosa of each patient’s rectosigmoid colon was first assessed by confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE); next, biopsied specimens of these sites were obtained. Intestinal tissues of IBS-D patients and healthy volunteers were examined to observe cellular changes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
CLE showed no visible epithelial damage or inflammatory changes in the colonic mucosa of IBS-D compared with healthy volunteers. On transmission electron microscopic examination, patients with IBS-D displayed a larger apical intercellular distance with a higher proportion of dilated (>20 nm) intercellular junctional complexes, which was indicative of impaired mucosal integrity. In addition, microvillus exfoliation, extracellular vesicle as well as increased presence of multivesicular bodies were visible in IBS-D patients. Single epithelial cells appeared necrotic, as characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic swelling, and presence of autolysosome. A significant association between bowel habit, frequency of abdominal pain, and enlarged intercellular distance was found.
This study showed ultrastructural alterations in the architecture of intestinal epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes in IBS-D patients, potentially representing a pathophysiological mechanism in IBS-D.
Authors:X.L. Jiang, G.F. Chen, X.J. Li, G. Li, Z.G. Ru, and J.C. Tian
This study aimed to clarify the genetic mechanisms behind wheat flour color. Flour colorrelated traits (L*, a*, and b*) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity are important parameters that influence the end-use quality of wheat. Dissecting the genetic bases and exploring important chromosomal loci of these traits are extremely important for improving wheat quality. The diverse panel of 205 elite wheat varieties (lines) was genotyped using a highdensity Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assay to disclose the genetic mechanism of flour color-related traits and PPO activity. In 2 different environments and their mean values (MV), 28, 30, 24, and 12 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for L*, a*, b* traits, and PPO activity, respectively. A single locus could explain from 5.52% to 20.01% of the phenotypic variation for all analyzed traits. Among them, 5 highly significant SNPs (P ≤ 0.0001), 11 stable SNPs (detected in all environments) and 25 multitrait MTAs were identified. Especially, BS00000020_51 showed pleiotropic effects on L*, a*, and b*, and was detected in all environments with the highest phenotypic contribution rates. Furthermore, this SNP was also found to be co-associated with wheat grain hardness, ash content, and pasting temperature of starch in previous studies. The identification of these significantly associated SNPs is helpful in revealing the genetic mechanisms of wheat colorrelated traits, and also provides a reference for follow-up molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.
Authors:F. Cui, J. Li, A. Ding, C. Zhao, X. Li, D. Feng, X. Wang, L. Wang, and H. Wang
To comprehensively understand the genetic basis of plant height (PH), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for internode lengths, internode component indices and plant height component index (PHCI) were firstly conducted in the present study. Two related F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations comprising 485 and 229 lines were used. Two hundred and nine putative additive QTL for the eight traits were identified, 35 of which showed significance in at least three trials. Of these, at least 11 pairwise QTL were common to the two populations. PH components at the QTL level had different effects on PH, confirming our previous multivariate conditional analysis (Cui et al. 2011). Eleven major QTL that showed consistency in expression across environments should be of great value in the genetic improvement of PH in wheat. The results above will enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.
Authors:A. Ding, F. Cui, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Qi, Y. Bao, X. Li, and H. Wang
Grain yield (GY) and yield components (YC) were investigated using two F8: 9 RILs, comprising 229 and 485 lines, respectively. A conditional analysis was conducted to generate conditional values for GY independent of each YC. Then both unconditional and conditional values were analyzed to map QTLs with additive effect. In both RILs, up to 23 unconditional and conditional QTLs were detected. However, only two QTLs were identified repeatedly among environments. All QTLs, except for 4 detected in unconditional mapping, were also identified as conditional QTLs, whereas a number of QTLs were additionally detected in conditional mapping. The number of QTLs detected that affected GY was different with respect to component-special influences. Our results revealed that the contributions of YC influencing QTL expression related to GY differed.
Authors:F. Zhang, J. Li, X.L. Wang, W. Mao, H. Zhang, J. Guo, and J.W. Li
An allometric analysis of biomass and N mass allocation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under non-shaded (100% of full sunlight) and shaded (30% of full sunlight) treatments were conducted. The allometric slopes and the intercepts were estimated using standardized major axis regression. Results indicated that biomass was preferentially allocated to stems during plant ontogeny, and leaves and roots were isometric when rice seedlings were not shaded. Under shade, however, more biomass was allocated to leaves and stems. N mass allocation was also altered by shading in that more N mass was allocated to the aerial shoots, and plants accumulated less N mass when shaded. Our study revealed that both biomass and N mass were in accordance with the optimal partitioning theory.
Authors:X.L. Qi, X.F. Li, F. He, L.Q. Hu, Y.G. Bao, J.R. Gao, and H.G. Wang
Thinopyrum intermedium, which has many useful traits, is valuable for wheat breeding. A new wheat-Thinopyrum addition line, SN100109, was developed from the progeny of common wheat cultivar Yannong 15 and Th. intermedium. It was resistant to most races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt), which caused powdery mildew in wheat, and its reactions were different from the reactions of gene Pm40 and Pm43. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular marker analysis were used to identify the genomic composition of SN100109. GISH results showed that SN100109 was a wheat-Th. intermedium disomic addition line containing one pair of J chromosomes, and the resistance gene was located on the alien additional chromosomes of SN100109. And four molecular markers BE425942, BF482714, Xgdm93 and BV679214 which were assigned to homologous group 2, were specific molecular markers of the additional chromosomes. All the results indicated that SN100109 contained one pair of 2J chromosomes. SN100109 can be used as a novel germplasm source for introducing powdery mildew resistance genes to wheat in breeding programs.