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he purpose of this paper is to give the direct and inverse theorem for pointwise approximation by Bernstein type operators.

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A method was developed for the preparative separation of two alkaloids from the crude extract of the radix of Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. in a single run. The two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:2:8, v/v), where triethylamine (40 mmol/L) was added to the upper organic phase as the stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (10 mmol/L) was added to the lower aqueous phase as the mobile phase, was selected for this separation by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography (PZRCCC). For the preparative separation, the apparatus was rotated at a speed 850 rpm, while the mobile phase was pumped into the column at 2 mL/min. As a result, 112 mg of reserpine and 21 mg of yohimbine were obtained from 3 g of crude extract in a single run. The analysis of the isolated compounds was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 230 nm with purities of over 91.0%, and the chemical identification was carried out by the data of electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The technique introduced in this paper is an efficient method for preparative separation of reserpine and yohimbine from devil pepper radix. It will be beneficial to utilize medicinal materials and also useful for the separation, purification, and pharmacological study of Chinese herbal ingredients.

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This paper proposed a relative value method for measuring the indicators of cardiac reserve and investigated the application on monitoring and evaluating cardiac function for pregnant women. A heart sound sensor is placed at the precordial region to detect phonocardiogram. In order to access the cardiac reserve mobilization level during pregnancy, the cardiac reserve indicators of 1,683 normal pregnant women, 96 abnormal cases with different obstetric complications and 624 non-pregnant women were measured, analyzed and compared. The result shows that the differences between the indicators of pregnant and non-pregnant women were significant (p < 0.05). The ratio of diastolic to systolic duration (D/S) was obviously declined with the increase of gestational weeks and the occurrence of obstetric complication. This very encouraging result indicates that the D/S can be used as an indicator for evaluating the cardiac safety of parturition, which provides a reference for cardiac safety assessment of pregnant women.

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An allometric analysis of biomass and N mass allocation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under non-shaded (100% of full sunlight) and shaded (30% of full sunlight) treatments were conducted. The allometric slopes and the intercepts were estimated using standardized major axis regression. Results indicated that biomass was preferentially allocated to stems during plant ontogeny, and leaves and roots were isometric when rice seedlings were not shaded. Under shade, however, more biomass was allocated to leaves and stems. N mass allocation was also altered by shading in that more N mass was allocated to the aerial shoots, and plants accumulated less N mass when shaded. Our study revealed that both biomass and N mass were in accordance with the optimal partitioning theory.

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The complex from reaction of neodymium chloride six-hydrate with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO), was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimatric analysis. The standard molar enthalpies of solution of [NdCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C9H7NO(s)] and [Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s)] in a mixed solvent of anhydrous ethanol, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and perchloric acid were determined by calorimetry at 298.15 K. Based on Hess’ law, a new chemical cycle was designed, and the enthalpy change of the reaction

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$NdCl_3 \cdot 6H_2 O(s) + 2C_7 H_6 O_3 (s) + C_9 H_7 NO(s) = Nd(C_7 H_5 O_3 )_2 \cdot (C_9 H_6 NO)(s) + 3HCl(g) + 6H_2 O(l)$$ \end{document}
((1)) was determined to be Δr H m Θ=117.89±0.37 kJ mol−1. From data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H7NO)(s) was estimated to be Δf H m Θ[Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s), 298.15 K]=−2031.80±8.6 kJ mol−1.

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Aegiolops kotschyi cytoplasmic male sterile system often results in part of haploid plants in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To elucidate the origin of haploid, 235 wheat microsatellite (SSR) primers were randomly selected and screened for polymorphism between haploid (2n = 3x = 21 ABD) and its parents, male-sterile line YM21 (2n = 6x = 42 AABBDD) and male fertile restorer YM2 (2n = 6x = 42 AABBDD). About 200 SSR markers yielded clear bands from denatured PAGE, of which 180 markers have identifiable amplification patterns, and 20 markers (around 8%) resulted in different amplification products between the haploid and the restorer, YM2. There were no SSR markers that were found to be distinguishable between the haploid and the male sterile line YM21. In addition, different distribution of HMW-GS between endosperm and seedlings from the same seeds further confirmed that the haploid genomes were inherited from the maternal parent. After haploidization, 1.7% and 0.91% of total sites were up- and down-regulated exceeding twofold in the shoot and the root of haploid, respectively, and most of the differentially expressed loci were up/down-regulated about twofold. Out of the sensitive loci in haploid, 94 loci in the shoot, 72 loci in the root can be classified into three functional subdivisions: biological process, cellular component and molecular function, respectively.

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Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive method to monitor and trace the environmental exposure levels of 14C-labeled molecules in vivo. Nicotine [3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Using 14C-labeled nicotine and AMS, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of curcumin, garlic squeeze, grapeseed extract, tea polyphenols, vitamin C and vitamin E, respectively, on nicotine-hemoglobin (Hb) adduction in vivo. The results demonstrated that these dietary constituents induced remarkable decrease of nicotine-Hb adducts. The inhibitory fact may afford an important clue of the chemoprevention of the potential nicotine-induced carcinogenesis.

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Leaf senescence is a notably important trait that limits the yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops. Therefore, determining the chromosomal position of the expression sequence tags (ESTs) that are associated with leaf senescence is notably interesting in the manipulation of leaf senescence for crop improvement. A total of 32 ESTs that were previously identified during the delaying leaf senescence stage in the stay-green wheat cultivar CN17 were mapped to 42 chromosomes, a chloroplast, a mitochondrion, and a ribosome using in silico mapping. Then, we developed 19 pairs of primers based on these sequences and used them to determine the polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivars (CN12, CN17, and CN18) and the control cultivar MY11. Among the 19 pairs of primers, 5 pairs produced polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivar and the non-stay-green control. Further studies of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics show that JK738991 is mapped to 3B, JK738983 is mapped to 5D, and JK738989 is mapped to 2A, 4A, and 3D. The other two ESTs, JK738994 and JK739003, were not assigned to a chromosome using the Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics, which indicates that these ESTs may be derived from rye DNA in the wide cross. In particular, the ESTs that produce polymorphisms are notably useful in identifying the stay-green cultivar using molecular marker-assisted selection. The results also suggest that the in silico mapping data, even from a comparison genomic analysis based on the homogeneous comparison, are useful at some points, but the data were not always reliable, which requires further investigation using experimental methods.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.F. Song, Z.Y. Ren, Y.B. Zhang, H.B. Zhao, X.B. Lv, J.L. Li, C.H. Guo, Q.J. Song, C.L. Zhang, W.L. Xin, and Z.M. Xiao

Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.

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