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Abstract  

By applying the Skorohod martingale embedding method, a strong approximation theorem for partial sums of asymptotically negatively dependent (AND) Gaussian sequences, under polynomial decay rates, is established. As applications, the law of the iterated logarithm, the Chung-type law of the iterated logarithm and the almost sure central limit theorem for AND Gaussian sequences are derived.

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Abstract  

Given a field of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\left\{ {X_{\bar n} ;\bar n \in \aleph ^d } \right\}$$ \end{document}
indexed by d-tuples of positive integers and taking values in a separable Banach space B, let
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$X_{\bar n}^{(r)} = X_{\bar m}$$ \end{document}
is the r-th maximum of
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\left\{ {\left\| {X_{\bar k} } \right\|;\bar k \leqq \bar n} \right\}$$ \end{document}
and let
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$^{(r)} S_{\bar n} = S_{\bar n} - \left( {X_{\bar n}^{(1)} + \cdots + X_{\bar n}^{(r)} } \right)$$ \end{document}
be the trimmed sums, where
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$S_{\bar n} = \sum\nolimits_{\bar k \leqq \bar n} {X_{\bar k} }$$ \end{document}
. This paper aims to obtain a general law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) for the trimmed sums which improves previous works.
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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L. by different methods and conditions have been investigated using TG and DTG. The results showed that every sample had different mass loss, curve shape, and peak location related to varied extraction technology. The TG-DTG characteristics of the rutin sample extracted by alkali-dissolution and acid-sedimentation with the solution adjusted to pH 9 and simply borax as stabilizer were highly similar to that of standard rutin, with the maximal purity determined by spectrophotometry. Therefore, the TG-DTG patterns could be served to characterize rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L.

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Abstract  

The curing kinetics of a bi-component system about o-cresol-formaldehyde epoxy resin (o-CFER) modified by liquid crystalline p-phenylene di[4-(2,3-epoxypropyl) benzoate] (p-PEPB), with 3-methyl-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MeTHPA) as a curing agent, were studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The relationship between apparent activation energy E a and the conversion α was obtained by the isoconversional method of Ozawa. The reaction molecular mechanism was proposed. The results show that the values of E a in the initial stage are higher than other time, and E a tend to decrease slightly with the reaction processing. There is a phase separation in the cure process with LC phase formation. These curing reactions can be described by the Šesták–Berggren (S–B) equation, the kinetic equation of cure reaction as follows:
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${\frac{{{\text{d}}\alpha }}{{{\text{d}}t}}} = A\exp \left( { - {\frac{{E_{\text{a}} }}{RT}}} \right)\alpha^{m} \left( {1 - a} \right)^{n}$$ \end{document}
.
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The metal-organic framework (MOF) is a kind of new type self-assembly porous coordination polymer, which possesses many characteristics such as homologic hole, controllable size of cave, high specific surface area, and good chemical stability. In this study, a three-dimensional framework [Zn2(d-Cam)2(4,4′-bpy)] n with large homochiral channel and the orderly arrangement of left- and right-handed helices was used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in gas chromatography (GC). [Zn2(d-Cam)2 (4,4′-bpy)] n -coated open tubular column was prepared by a dynamic coating method for high-resolution GC. Some racemates, isomers, linear alkanes, and alcohols are used as the targets for separation. The column coating properties efficiency, polarity, and selectivity were studied. The experimental results show that the stationary phase has outstanding selectivity and also possesses good recognition ability toward these compounds.

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Summary

Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) have been established and validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight steroidal saponins in ten batches of Gongxuening capsule (GXN), a widely commercially available traditional Chinese preparation. The optimum chromatographic conditions entailed use of a Kromasil C18 column with acetonitrile-water (30:70 to 62:38, υ/υ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was 102°C and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.8 L min−1. Separation was successfully achieved within 25 min. LC-ESI-MSn was used for unequivocal identification of the constituents of the samples by comparison with reference compounds. The assay was fully validated for precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability, then successfully applied to quantification of the eight compounds in samples. The method could be effective for evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of GXN.

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Summary  

Adsorption microcalorimetry has been employed to study the interaction of ethylene with the reduced and oxidized Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts with different Ag contents to elucidate the modified effect of Ag towards the hydrocarbon processing on platinum catalysts. In addition, microcalorimetric adsorption of H2, O2, CO and FTIR of CO adsorption were conducted to investigate the influence of Ag on the surface structure of Pt catalyst. It is found from the microcalorimetric results of H2and O2adsorption that the addition of Ag to Pt/SiO2leads to the enrichment of Ag on the catalyst surface which decreases the size of Pt surface ensembles of Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts. The microcalorimetry and FTIR of CO adsorption indicates that there still exist sites for linear and bridged CO adsorption on the surface of platinum catalysts simultaneously although Ag was incorporated into Pt/SiO2. The ethylene microcalorimetric results show that the decrease of ensemble size of Pt surface sites suppresses the formation of dissociative species (ethylidyne) upon the chemisorption of C2H4on Pt-Ag/SiO2. The differential heat vs. uptake plots for C2H4adsorption on the oxygen-preadsorbed Pt/SiO2and Pt-Ag/SiO2catalysts suggest that the incorporation of Ag to Pt/SiO2could decrease the ability for the oxidation of C2H4.

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Gastrodia elata Blume polysaccharide (GEP) was extracted and then chemically characterised. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results of the in vitro investigation show that GEP consists of glucose with molecular weight of 875 185 Da and exhibits high hydroxyl radical scavenging, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl activity and reducing capacity. For antioxidant activity in vivo, D-galactose-induced-aged mice were orally administered with three different doses of GEP over a period of 6 weeks. The administration of GEP dosedependently increased the body weight gain rates, liver and brain indices, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and malondialdehyde levels in the sera and brains of ageing mice. These results suggest that GEP exhibits high antioxidant activity and can retard human ageing associated with free radicals.

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To explore the physiological characteristics of the pepc gene in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, PEPC activities in various organs of T3 plants were analyzed at Feekes 6.0, Feekes 10.3 and Feekes 11.1, and compared to control, untransformed wheat cultivar Zhoumai 19. Net photosynthetic rates (P n) in leaves were also measured at the same stages. At Feekes 11.1, both transgenic and control plants were treated with DCDP. Yield traits were surveyed after harvest. The results indicated that P n and PEPC activity in the flag leaf of transgenic wheat were significantly higher than those of the control at different stages. At Feekes 10.3, P n reached the highest value at 28.2 μmol m−2 s−1 and PEPC activity reached the highest value at 104.6 μmol h−1 mg−1. Both factors significantly increased by 21% compared to the control at Feekes 11.1. PEPC activity in the flag leaf of transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-leaf organs. P n of transgenic plants was greatly reduced after DCDP treatment. In the flag leaf of transgenic wheat, P n was significantly correlated to PEPC activities at 0.01 probability level with a correlation coefficient of 0.8957**. The yield traits of transgenic line 1-27-3, such as 1000-grain weight, single spike weight and harvest index were higher than those of the control. Additionally, the spike weight of 1-27-3 showed an increase of approximately 9.5% compared to the control. These results indicated that the expression of maize (Zea mays) pepc gene was different across various organs of transgenic wheat and across every growth stage. Therefore, we conclude that introducing maize pepc gene into wheat plants can increase their P n and improve production.

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