This paper introduces a diffusion network model: an individual-citation-based directed network model with a time dimension, as a potentially useful approach to capture the diffusion of research topics. The approach combines social network analysis, network visualization and citation analysis to discuss some of the issues concerning the spread of scientific ideas. The process of knowledge diffusion is traced from a network point of view. Using research on the h-index as a case study, we built detailed networks of individual publications and demonstrated the feasibility of applying the diffusion network model to the spread of a research. The model shows the specific paths and associations of individual papers, and potentially complementing issues raised by epidemic models, which primarily deal with average properties of entire scientific communities. Also, based on the citation-based network, the technique of main path analysis identified the articles that influenced the research for some time and linked them into a research tradition that is the backbone of the h-index field.
We apply social network analysis to display the characteristics of the networks resulting from bibliographic coupling of journals
by the Chinese patent data of United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 1995 and 2002. The networks of journals
in all fields, the three strongly science-based fields (i.e. Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, and Organic Fine Chemistry),
and the three weakly science-based fields (i.e. Optics, Telecommunications, and Consumer Electronics), have been analyzed
from the global and the ego views, respectively. We study a variety of statistical properties of our networks, including number
of actors, number of edges, size of the giant component, density, mean degree, clustering coefficient and the centralization
measures of the network. We also highlight some apparent differences in the network structure between the subjects studied.
Besides, we use the three centrality measures, i.e. degree, closeness, and betweenness, to identify the important journals
in the network of all fields and those strongly science-based networks.
Bioinformatics is an emerging and rapidly evolving discipline. The bioinformatics literature is growing exponentially. This
paper aims to provide an integrated bibliometric study of the knowledge base of Chinese research community, based on the bibliometric
information in the field of bioinformatics from SCI-Expanded database during the period of 2000–2005. It is found that China
is productive in bioinformatics as far as publication activity in international journals is concerned. For comparative purpose,
the results are benchmarked against the findings from five other major nations in the field of bioinformatics: USA, UK, Germany,
Japan and India. In terms of collaboration profile, the findings imply that the collaborative scope of China has gradually
transcended boundaries of organizations, regions and nations as well. Finally, further analyses on the citation share and
some surrogate scientometric indicators show that the publications of Chinese authors suffer from a lowest international visibility
among the six countries. Strikingly, Japan has achieved most remarkable impact of publication when compared to research effort
devoted to bioinformatics amongst the six countries. The policy implication of the findings lies in that Chinese scientific
community needs much work on improving the research impact and pays more attention to strengthening the academic linkages
between China and worldwide nations, particularly scientifically advanced countries.
Authors:Xia Gao, Jiancheng Guan, and Ronald Rousseau
Only a few cases of systematic empirical research have been reported investigating collaborative knowledge production in China and its implications for China's national and regional innovation system. Using Chinese patent data in the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), this paper examines the geographic variations in intraregional, inter-regional and international knowledge exchanges of China from 1985 to 2007. Degree centrality reveals that intraregional and international collaborations are the main channels of knowledge exchange for the provinces and municipalities of China while inter-regional knowledge exchange is relatively weak. Besides, over the two decades, the knowledge exchange network has been expanding (connecting an increasing number of provinces and countries), becoming more decentralized (increasing number of hubs) and more cohesive (more linkages). A blockmodel analysis further reveals that the inter-regional network of China begins to show characteristics of a core-periphery structure. The most active knowledge exchange occurs between members of the core block composed by the most advanced provinces while the members of the peripheral block from less favored regions have few or no local and extra-local knowledge exchange. Building a strong knowledge transfer network would much improve the innovation capacities in less favored regions and help them break out from their “locked-in” development trajectories.
Authors:Yuehua Song, Shupin Xia, Haidong Wang, and Shiyang Gao
The thermal behavior of synthetic schoenite (K2SO4·MgSO4·6H2)) during heating has been studied by thermal methods. The temperatures of dehydration and decomposition of schoenite have
also been determined by DTA, TG and DSC. The thermal reaction equations and the X-ray power diffraction results of the products
have been given and the corresponding kinetic parameters have also been obtained.
Authors:Guangjuan Ren, Yuan Gao, Xia Liu, An Xing, Huitao Liu, and Jungang Yin
A simple method for preparing F-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with high visible light photocatalytic activity was developed using TiCl4 and HF as TiO2 and fluorine precursors in HCl solution by a one-step hydrothermal treatment without any organic species. The presence of
HF plays an important role in the formation of the F-doped shuttle-like anatase TiO2 nanostructures. XRD analysis showed that the F− could prevent the transformation of anatase to rutile in HCl solution. Compared with ordinary TiO2, the F-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized at 180 °C exhibited better photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under visible
light irradiation. Possible formation mechanism of F-doped anatase TiO2 under hydrothermal conditions was discussed.
Authors:Qiang Ren, Tianrui Xia, Xian-Gao Quan, Lin Ding, and Hui-Yun Wang
Scutellaria barbata D. Don has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for antitumor and anti-inflammatory. However, there were just a few investigations about S. barbata D. Don according to bioactivity-directed isolation and online identification for the chemical constituents. In this work, eight compounds were isolated from S. barbata D. Don. The three flavonoids indicated the cytotoxic activity against human leukemic Reh cell lines. In addition, the constituents of S. barbata D. Don were further characterized and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The UHPLC- Q-TOF-MS method was in negative ion mode. HPLC separation was performed on a Tosoh TSK gel ODS-100V (4.6 × 150 mm, 3.0 μm) column by gradient elution using water containing 0.3% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min−1. A total of 18 compounds, including 4 phenolic acids and 14 flavonoids were tentatively characterized and identified by means of the retention time, accurate mass, and characteristic fragment ions.
Authors:Hui-Zhou Gao, Qi Yang, Xiao-Yan Yan, Zhu-Jun Wang, Ji-Li Feng, Xia Yang, Sheng-Li Gao, Lei Feng, Xu Cheng, Chao Jia, and Ke-Wu Yang
In an effort to probe the reaction of antibiotic hydrolysis catalyzed by B3 metallo-β-lactamase (MβL), the thermodynamic parameters of penicillin G hydrolysis catalyzed by MβL L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were determined by microcalorimetric method. The values of activation free energy ΔG≠θ are 88.26, 89.44, 90.49, and 91.57 kJ mol−1 at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K, respectively, activation enthalpy ΔH≠θ is 24.02 kJ mol−1, activation entropy ΔS≠θ is −219.2511 J mol−1 K−1, apparent activation energy E is 26.5183 kJ mol−1, and the reaction order is 1.0. The thermodynamic parameters reveal that the penicillin G hydrolysis catalyzed by MβL L1 is an exothermic and spontaneous reaction.
Authors:Xia Yang, Lei Feng, Kang-Zhen Xu, Hui-Zhou Gao, Chao Jia, Cheng-Cheng Liu, Jian-Min Xiao, Le Zhai, Li-Sheng Zhou, and Ke-Wu Yang
In an effort to understand the reaction of antibiotic hydrolysis with B2 metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs), the thermodynamic parameters of imipenem hydrolysis catalyzed by metallo-β-lactamase ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria were determined by microcalorimetric method. The values of activation free energy are 86.400 ± 0.043, 87.543 ± 0.034, 88.772 ± 0.024, and 89.845 ± 0.035 kJ mol−1 at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K, respectively, activation enthalpy is 18.586 ± 0.009 kJ mol−1, activation entropy is −231.34 ± 0.12 J mol−1 K−1, apparent activation energy E is 21.084 kJ mol−1, and the reaction order is 1.5. The thermodynamic parameters reveal that the imipenem hydrolysis catalyzed by metallo-β-lactammase ImiS is an exothermic and spontaneous reaction.