In this paper, a fourth-order nonlinear difference equation is considered. By making use of the critical point theory, we establish various sets of sufficient conditions for the existence and nonexistence of solutions for Neumann boundary value problem and give some new results. Results obtained generalize and complement the existing ones.
Authors:Na Yang, Xia Cui, Weifeng Qian, Shanshan Yu and Qun Liu
Abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. Aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in Beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by PCR between 2008 and 2010. From a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. The detected pathogens included infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (36.3%) and Neospora caninum (31.3%), followed by bovine viral diarrhoea virus (7.5%), Brucella abortus (6.3%), Tritrichomonas foetus (5%) and Toxoplasma gondii (1.3%). Campylobacter fetus, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila psittaci were not detected in any abortion case. Findings from this study indicated that infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Neospora caninum were the main potential causes of abortions in Beijing dairy herds, whereas the bacterial pathogens were not, in contrast to reports from other countries. This is the first study to test nine abortifacient infectious agents by PCR at the same time, and it is also the first time to report the involvement of a variety of infectious agents in bovine abortion cases in China.
By making use of the critical point theory, the existence of periodic solutions for fourth-order nonlinear p-Laplacian difference equations is obtained. The main approach used in our paper is a variational technique and the Saddle Point Theorem. The problem is to solve the existence of periodic solutions of fourth-order nonlinear p-Laplacian difference equations. The results obtained successfully generalize and complement the existing one.
By making use of the critical point theory, we establish some new existence criteria to guarantee that a 2nth-order nonlinear difference equation containing both advance and retardation with p-Laplacian has a nontrivial homoclinic orbit. Our conditions on the potential are rather relaxed, and some existing results in the literature are improved.
Authors:Yaling Chi, Yuantao Chen, Xia Liu, Zhijun Guo and Linsen Cai
The sorption of UO22+ from aqueous solution on attapulgite was investigated as a function of contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, foreign
ions, humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) under ambient conditions by using batch technique. The attapulgite sample was
characterized by XRD and FTIR in detail. The results indicated that the sorption of UO22+ was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of UO22+ on attapulgite increased quickly with rising pH at pH < 6.5, and decreased with increasing pH at pH > 6.5. The presence of
HA or FA enhanced the sorption of UO22+ on attapulgite obviously at low pH because of the strong complexation of surface adsorbed HA/FA with UO22+ on attapulgite surface. Sorption of UO22+ on attapulgite was mainly dominated by ion-exchange or outer-sphere surface complexation at low pH values, but by inner-sphere
surface complexation at high pH values. The results indicate that attapulgite is a very suitable adsorbent for the preconcentration
and solidification of UO22+ from large volumes of aqueous solutions because of its negative surface charge and large surface areas.
Authors:Liu Xia, Chen Yuantao, Chi Yaling, Guo Zhijun and Cai Linsen
In this article, a series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various environmental factors
such as contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, temperature and coexisting humic acid on the sorption
behavior radionuclide 60Co(II) on illite. The results indicated that the sorption of Co(II) was strongly dependent on pH, ionic strength and temperature.
At low pH, the sorption was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange on illite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere
surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models
were used to simulate the sorption isotherms at three different temperatures of 303.15, 323.15 and 343.15 K. The thermodynamic
data (∆G0, ∆S0, ∆H0) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms and the results suggested that the sorption process of
Co(II) on illite was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The sorption test revealed that the illite can be as a cost-effective
adsorbent suitable for pre-concentration of Co(II) from large volumes of aqueous solutions.
Authors:Mina Luo, Huaqiao Ma, Xia Liu and Shengxiang Jiang
A simple and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for analysis of flavonoids in Lamiophlomis rotata. HPLC conditions were optimized. Baseline separation was achieved by use of a binary gradient prepared from 100:0.2 (v/v) water-trifluoroacetic acid (component A), and acetonitrile (component B). The gradient was from 20 to 35% B in 10 min, hold at 35% B for 20 min, then from 35 to 70% B in 10 min. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the detection wavelength was 366 nm. Linearity and precision were investigated. When normal least-squares linear regression (LSLR) was compared with weighted least-squares linear regression (WLSLR), values obtained by use of the latter were much closer to the actual values, over the whole range of concentration, than those obtained by use of the former. WLSLR was therefore used in this work. This HPLC method was successfully used for analysis of the flavonoids in Lamiophlomis rotata and could be effective for quality control of the plant.
Authors:L. Liu, Z. He, W. Ma, J. Liu, X. Xia and R. Peña
Glutenin subunit alleles at the
locus and their effects on dough properties, pan bread, and dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) qualities were investigated using 106 winter and facultative wheat cultivars and advanced lines. Allele
(42.5%) was the most frequent glutenin subunit, followed by
occurred in only three and six cultivars, respectively. The effect of
was significant forDWCNquality, accounting for up to 16% of the variation, but there were no significant differences between individual
alleles on dough properties and qualities of DWCNand pan bread. Interaction effects
Glu-A1 × Glu-D3
Glu-B1 × Glu-D3
were significant for DWCN quality and loaf volume. More work is needed to understand the effects of
variation on the determination of dough properties and end-use quality.
Authors:Guangjuan Ren, Yuan Gao, Xia Liu, An Xing, Huitao Liu and Jungang Yin
A simple method for preparing F-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with high visible light photocatalytic activity was developed using TiCl4 and HF as TiO2 and fluorine precursors in HCl solution by a one-step hydrothermal treatment without any organic species. The presence of
HF plays an important role in the formation of the F-doped shuttle-like anatase TiO2 nanostructures. XRD analysis showed that the F− could prevent the transformation of anatase to rutile in HCl solution. Compared with ordinary TiO2, the F-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized at 180 °C exhibited better photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under visible
light irradiation. Possible formation mechanism of F-doped anatase TiO2 under hydrothermal conditions was discussed.
This article explores a method of evaluating the comprehensive competitiveness of American universities in Bridge Engineering, which is beneficial for students’ picking up an ideal university for further study in America. Making use of ESI database, SCI database and EI database as well as the ranking of American universities from U.S. News and World Report, the author evaluates the comprehensive competitiveness of American universities in Bridge Engineering, and then develops the ranking of comprehensive competitiveness of American universities in Bridge Engineering specialty. From the ranking, the author reaches the conclusion that American universities such as University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign and Georgia Institute of Technology and so on, have comparatively higher international influence and competitiveness in the field of Bridge Engineering.