Using XRY-1C calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpy of taurine was determined to be −2546.2 kJ mol−1. The reliability of the instrument used was tested by using naphthalene as reference material; and through comparing the molar combustion enthalpy of naphthalene measured with its standard value found in literature, the absolute error and relative error were found to be 4.53 kJ mol−1 and 0.09%, respectively. The melting point and melting enthalpy of taurine were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which was found to be 588.45 K and −22.197 kJ mol−1, respectively. Moreover, using the DSC method, the specific heat capacities Cp of taurine was measured and the relationship between Cp and temperature was established. The thermodynamic basic data obtained are available for the exploiting new synthesis method, engineering design and industry production of taurine.
Uniformity in the height of main stem and tillers is a key factor affecting ideal plant type, a key component in super high-yielding rice breeding. An understanding of the genetic basis of the panicle layer uniformity may thus contribute to breeding varieties with good plant type and high yield. In the present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population, derived from a cross between
rice variety Zhai-Ye-Qing 8 (ZYQ8) and
rice variety Jing-Xi 17 (JX17) was used to analyze quantitative trait loci (QTL) for panicle layer uniformity related traits. Six, four and three QTL were detected for the highest panicle height (HPH), lowest panicle height (LPH) and panicle layer dis-uniformity (PLD), respectively. qHPH-1-1 and qPLD-1 were located at the same interval on chromosome 1. The JX17 allele(s) of these QTL increased HPH and PLD by 2.57 and 1.26 cm, respectively. Similarly, qPLD-7 and qHPH-7 were located at the same interval on chromosome 7, where the ZYQ8 allele(s) increased HPH and PLD by 3.74 and 1.96 cm, respectively. These four QTL were unfavourable for panicle layer uniformity improvement because a decrease of the PLD was accompanied by decrease of the plant height. qPLD-6 and qLPH-6-1 were located at the same interval on chromosome 6, however here the JX17 allele(s) increased LPH, but decreased PLD, suggesting that this QTL was favourable for improvement of panicle layer uniformity. The markers identified in this study are potential for marker assisted breeding for the improvement of the panicle layer uniformity and ideal plant type.
Increasing research has examined the factors related to smartphone use disorder. However, limited research has explored its neural basis.
We aimed to examine the relationship between the topology of the resting-state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) brain network and smartphone use disorder using minimum spanning tree analysis. Furthermore, we examined how negative emotions mediate this relationship.
This study included 113 young, healthy adults (mean age = 20.87 years, 46.9% males).
The results showed that the alpha- and delta-band kappas and delta-band leaf fraction were positively correlated with smartphone use disorder. In contrast, the alpha-band diameter was negatively correlated with smartphone use disorder. Negative emotions fully mediated the relationship between alpha-band kappa and alpha-band diameter and smartphone use disorder. Furthermore, negative emotions partially mediated the relationship between delta-band kappa and smartphone use disorder. The findings suggest that excessive scale-free alpha- and delta-band brain networks contribute to the emergence of smartphone use disorder. In addition, the findings also demonstrate that negative emotions and smartphone use disorder share the same neural basis. Negative emotions play a mediating role in the association between topological deviations and smartphone use disorder.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the neural basis of smartphone use disorder from the perspective of the topology of the rs-EEG brain network. Therefore, neuromodulation may be a potential intervention for smartphone use disorder.
Twenty different brands of Chinese tea were analyzed for multiple trace elements, including some essential and toxic elements,
by neutron activation analysis (NAA). A comparison among tea brands from China, India, US and other countries was made for
the ranges and averages of concentrations for Na, K, Mn, Cu, and Br. It has been observed that the trace element contents
in tea leaves are largely dependent upon the soil and the environment where the tea grows. Chinese tea is rich in Mn and Cu
comparing with those of other counties surveyed, but is indigent in Na. The transference ratio for each element determined
(i.e., the fraction of an element in tea leave transferred into solution when tea is leached by percolation) is also reported.
Adult daily intakes of some essential and toxic elements from tea drinking were also estimated.
An expression of γ-ray efficiency for large samples is proposed based on numerical integration of efficiencies over compositional
point sources. The widely used expression on radial variation of HPGe efficiency for point source originally proposed by Noguchi
et al. (Int J Appl Radiat Isot 32:17–22, 1980 [<cite>1</cite>]) was amended and a new expression was proposed. A comparison between the two expressions indicates that the newly proposed
expression brings about an obvious improvement, and Self-absorption correction for a voluminous source is also given out by
using the EID principle. The functional relationship between HPGe efficiency for γ-rays from a point source and the spatial
position of the source was established. The results of this study can be applied in order to determine γ attenuation effects
of unknown bulky samples with various shapes and materials.