This review focuses on the development of continuous rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylations in the past 15 years. Recent progresses are discussed and compared in detail, based on different types of catalyst handling including single-phase homogeneous system, multiphase system, immobilized catalysts on solid supports, supported ionic liquid phase catalyst, and scCO2—ionic liquid biphasic system.
Authors:Yuping Wang, Dongyuan Wang, Jie Wang, Zhili Xiong, Hongxia Zhang, Gaohong She, Jian Li and Shengtao Xiao
A new AMD instrument made in our laboratory is described in this paper. The main advantages of the instrument are very low cost both of construction and in use. Compared with ascending development in conventional instruments, a laboratory-made horizontal sandwich chamber is used for development, and, with the help of a series of special accessories, no obvious mobile phase remains in the distributor after each step; this saves a large amount of solvent. All the components of the instrument are easy to obtain, so the average worker in a chemical laboratory could construct all the instrument except the control unit. An application of the instrument is described; the results obtained were satisfactory.
Authors:Yanling Zhao, Dan Yan, Jiabo Wang, Ping Zhang and Xiaohe Xiao
Using a LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor, stop-flow mode, the power–time curves of Candida albicans growth at 37 °C affected by berberine were measured. The check experiments were studied based on agar cup method to observe
the inhibitory diameter and serial dilution method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of berberine on
C. albicans growth. By analyzing the quantitative thermogenic parameters taken from the power–time curves using correspondence analysis
(CA), we could find that berberine at a low concentration (5.0 μg mL−1) began to inhibit the growth of C. albicans and at a high concentration (75.0 μg mL−1) completely inhibited C. albicans growth. The anti-fungal activity of berberine could also be expressed as half-inhibitory concentration IC50, i.e., 50% effective in this inhibition. The value of IC50 of berberine on C. albicans was 34.52 μg mL−1. The inhibitory diameters all exceeded 10 mm in test range and the MIC was 500 μg mL−1. Berberine had strong anti-fungal effect on C. albicans growth. This work provided an important idea of the combination of microcalorimetry and CA for the study on anti-fungal effect
of berberine and other compounds. Compared with the agar cup method and serial dilution method, microcalorimetry not only
offered a useful way for evaluating the bioactivity of drugs, but also provides more information about the microbial growth
and all this information was significant for the synthesis and searching of antibiotics.
Authors:L. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Wang, Z. Fang and G. Qiu
The principle for the electro-generative simultaneous leaching (EGSL) is applied to simultaneous leaching of pyrite-MnO2 in this paper. A galvanic system for the bio-electro-generative simultaneous leaching (BEGSL) has been set up. The equation
of electric quantity vs. time is used to study the effect of produced sulfur on electro-generative efficiency and quantity. It has been shown that
the resistance decreased in the presence of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) with the increase of electro-generative efficiency. The effects of temperature and grain size on rate of ferrous extraction
from pyrite under the conditions of presence and absence of A. thiooxidans were studied, respectively. The changes in the extraction rate of Fe2+ as particle size in presence of A. thiooxidans were more evident than that in the absence, which indicated that the extraction in bio-electro-generative leaching was affected
by particle size remarkably. Around the optimum culture temperature for A. thiooxidans, the bigger change in the conversion rate of Fe2+ was depending on temperature. The transferred charge in BEGSL including part of S0 to sulfate group in the presence of (A. thiooxidans) which is called as biologic electric quantity, and the ratio of biologic electric quantity reached to 58.10% in 72 h among
the all-transferred charge.
Authors:L. Xiao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, Q. Zhang and K. Wang
Fingernails of pathologically diagnosed normal people, light esophageal epitheliosis patients, severe esophageal epitheliosis patients and esophageal cancer patients were irradiated and their elemental contents were determined by INAA. Multivariate statistical treatment of Ca, Cl, K. Mg, Se and Zn data shows that esophageal cancer patients are distinguishable from non-cancer patients. The accuracy computed by neural networks is greater than 80%.
The aim of this study is to investigate the melting/freezing characteristics of paraffin by adding Cu nanoparticles. Cu/paraffin composite phase change materials (PCMs) were prepared by a two-step method. The effects of Cu nanoparticles on the thermal conductivity and the phase change heat transfer of PCMs were investigated by the Hot Disk thermal constants analyzer and infrared monitoring methods, respectively. The maximum thermal conductivity enhancements up to 14.2% in solid state and 18.1% in liquid state are observed at the 2 wt% Cu/paraffin. The photographs of infrared monitoring suggest that the melting and freezing rates of Cu/paraffin are enhanced. For 1 wt% Cu/paraffin, the melting and freezing times can be saved by about 33.3 and 31.6%, respectively. The results provide that adding nanoparticles is an efficient way to enhance the phase change heat transfer of PCMs.
Authors:Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Li, H. Xiao and Z. Chai
The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants.
Authors:Yang Zhao-He, Li Xiao-Yan and Wang Ya-Juan
The thermal decomposition process of the complex [Cu(NBOCTB)][Cu(NO3)4] H2O has been studied by TG and DTG technique, and possible intermediates of the thermal decomposition have also been conjectured from the TG and DTG curves. The results suggest that the decomposition of the complex involves five steps:
Based on the convolution formula of the disturbed aging distribution (Egghe&Rousseau, 2000) and the transfer function model
of the publishing delay process, we establish the transfer function model ofthe disturbed citing process. Using the model,
we make simulative investigations of disturbed citation distributions and impact factors according to different average publication
delays. These simulative results show that the bigger increment the average publication delays in a scientific field, the
larger shift backwards of the citation distribution curves and the more fall the impact factors of journals in the field.
Based on sometheoretical hypotheses, it is shown that there exists theoretically an approximate inverse linear relation between
the field (or discipline) average publication delay and the journal impact factor.
Authors:Sun Tong-Shan, Xiao Yu-Mei, Wang Da-Qing, Wang Feng-Lian and Zhao Yu-Ting
The complexes of rare earth bromides with alanine, REBr33AlanH2O (RE=Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd and Tb, n=3; RE=Dy and Y, n=2.5
Ala=alanine), were prepared and characterized by means of chemical analysis, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, thermogravimetry,
IR spectra and X-ray diffraction. The thermal decomposition in N2 of these complexes was studied by means of TG-DTG techniques
from ambient temperature to 1000C. During heating, the hydrated complexes of Ce, Pr and Y lose waters in one step, but the
hydrated complexes of Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy lose waters in two steps. Then anhydrous complexes lose 2.5 alanine molecules
except the complexes of Eu which lose three alanine molecules. Apparently, only be complex of Eu has an intermediate, EuOBr.
All complexes finally decompose to oxides.