Cross-field comparison of citation measures of scientific achievement or research quality is severely hindered by the diversity
of the stage of development and citation habits of different disciplines or fields. Based on the same principles of RCR (Relative
Citation Rate) and RW (Relative Subfield Citedness), a new dimension — the Relative Superiority Coefficient (SCn) in research quality was introduced. This can indicate clearly the relative research level for research groups at multiple
levels in the respective field by consistent criteria in terms of research quality. Comparison of the SCn within or across 22 broad fields among 5 countries were presented as an application model. Hierarchical Cluster and One-Way
ANOVA were applied and processed by the statistical program SPSS. All original data were from Essential Science Indicators
In this study, a series of relative indicators are used to compare the difference in research performance in biomedical fields
between ten selected Western and Asian countries. Based on Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) 1996–2006, the output
of papers and their citations in ten biomedical fields are compared at multiple levels using relative indicators. Chart diagrams
and hierarchical clustering are applied to represent the data. The results confirm that there are many differences in intra-
and interdisciplinary scientific activities between the West and the East. In most biomedical fields Asian countries perform
below world average.
New indicators, including the outgrow index, characterizing an article in its ego citation network are introduced. We take full advantage of the existing duality (cites–is cited by) in a citation network. Although algebraic aspects are emphasized, a first step towards their interpretation is attempted. Examples of their calculation and of future applications are provided.