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Abstract  

To investigate the radio impurity in the radiolysis of 18F-FDG at high radiodose and radioconcentrated solutions and develop methods of repurification. The radiolysis of 18F-FDG was analyzed by TLC. The radio-impurity was confirmed by biodistribution and small animal PET/CT studies. 18F-FDG was unstable at high radioconcentrition over 37 GBq/mL or under basic condition. TLC, biodistribution and PET/CT all indicated that the main autoradiolysis byproduct was free fluoride ion. The radiolyzed 18F-FDG was repurified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The repurified 18F-FDG had a radiochemical purity (RCP) of over 99% and significantly lower bone uptake than that was before repurification (P = 0.0003). There was a positive correlation between the recovery yield and the purity of 18F-FDG (R 2 = 0.66).

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Abstract

Background and aims

Stress is a common experience among college students with problematic Internet use, and it may exacerbate their cue-induced Internet craving. This study aimed to examine the influence of stress on cue-induced craving for the Internet among subjects with problematic Internet use and the buffering effect of mindfulness.

Methods

Sixty-eight college students with problematic Internet use were assigned to groups with a 2 (stress vs. no-stress) × 2 (high vs. low mindfulness) between-subject design.

Results

It was deduced that stress could significantly enhance cue-induced craving for the Internet, and mindfulness could buffer this effect. Specifically, the effect of stress on cue-induced craving for the Internet was weaker among subjects with high mindfulness as compared to subjects with low mindfulness.

Discussion and Conclusions

These findings contribute to understanding of the factors influencing problematic Internet use and how such factors interact. It also provides recommendations on how to prevent the progression of problematic Internet use and suggests possible interventions.

Open access

Abstract

A simple, rapid, and sensitive method based on UPLC-MS/MS was developed to determine spiraeoside in mouse blood, and was applied to the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of spiraeoside after mice after intravenous (a dose of 5 mg kg−1) and oral (a dose of 20 mg kg−1) administration. On HSS T3 column set at 40 °C, chromatographic separation was obtained with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid using the gradient elution. Spiraeoside and internal standard (IS) were quantitatively analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in electrospray (ESI) positive interface. The MRM mode was monitoring the fragmentation of m/z 465.4→303.1 and m/z 451.3→ 289.2 for spironoside and IS, respectively. The results showed a good linear relationship was in the concentration range of 1–200 ng mL−1 (r > 0.998) and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.0 ng mL−1. The intra- and the inter-day precision (RSD%) of the method was within 14.0%, and the accuracy ranged from 90.0% to 115.0%. The extraction recovery of spriaeoside was better than 63.0%, and the matrix effects were in the range of 86%–98%. It also showed the half-life was short, and the absolute bioavailability was 4.0% in mice. Therefore, the established UPLC-MS/MS method was suitable for the pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of spiraeoside in mice.

Open access
Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Xiuhui Tian
,
Dianfeng Han
,
Yanmei Cui
,
Lihua Ren
,
Fang Jiang
,
Hui Huang
,
Xianghong Gong
,
Jinglin Xue
,
Jiawei Li
,
Huihui Liu
,
Yingjiang Xu
,
Xiaojun Luo
,
Xiaojing Liu
, and
Xiuzhen Zhang

Abstract

A sensitive and validated method for determining quinocetone and its main metabolites (3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and dedioxoquinenone) was established in aquatic products using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted with 2.0 mol L−1 hydrochloric acid, then purified on MAX columns. After extraction and purification, the supernatant was evaporated to dry nearly under a gentle stream of nitrogen at 40 °C. Formic acid-acetonitrile-water (0.1/30/70, v/v/v) was adjusted to 1.00 mL final volume. An aliquot (10 μL) was injected into the C18 column for separation with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid in water at 0.25 mL min−1. Calibration curves were linear ranged from 10.00 ng mL−1 to 200.0 ng mL−1 for quinocetone and 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, and 20.00 ng mL−1 to 400.0 ng mL−1 for dedioxoquinenone. Mean recoveries were 70%–89%, 73%–83% and 72%–84%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.00 μg kg−1, 1.00 μg kg−1 and 2.00 μg kg−1, and quantification (LOQ) were 2.00 μg kg−1, 2.00 μg kg−1 and 4.00 μg kg−1 for quinocetone, 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, and dedioxoquinenone. Based on the method above, the analytes were determined in Apostichopus japonicus, three fishes (including Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Crucian carp and Oreochromis mossambicus), Penaeus vannamei, Penaeus chinensis, and Chlamys farreri. The method shows good sensitivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. In short, the proposed method was reliable for the determination of quinocetone, 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, and dedioxoquinenone in aquatic products.

Open access