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  • Author or Editor: Xing Xie x
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Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an enveloped virus belonging to the genus Influenza virus A within the family Orthomyxoviridae. Prior to 2004, only sporadic outbreaks of canine influenza had been observed in dog populations around the world. However, in 2004 an H3N8 influenza virus of equine origin caused severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds in Florida; subsequently, cases of dogs affected with various subtypes of CIV have been reported in many countries. Here, we performed a structured review of CIV, including its emergence, evolution and epizootiology. Although CIV causes a disease of low mortality, the potential public health threat it poses due to close contact between dogs and humans highlights the necessity of promoting surveillance for this virus.

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Sediment core samples were collected in the largest urban Lake Donghu (Stations I and II) in China, and the activities of 210Pb, 226Ra and 137Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The sedimentation rates, calculated by 210Pb constant rate of supply (CRS) model, ranged from 0.11 to 0.65 (average 0.39) cm. y-1at Station I, and from 0.21 to 0.78 (average 0.46) cm. y-1at Station II. Sedimentation rate calculated by 137Cs as a time marker was 0.55 cm. y-1at Station II. Based on the average sedimentation rate, we obtained 769 and 147 t. y-1for nitrogen and phosphorus retentions in Lake Donghu sediments, respectively.

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Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) has been widely used in the industrial and food field, it is sensitive to shock, heat and friction, and causes thermal explosion incidents easily. Therefore, it is important to understand its thermal behaviors and kinetics for loss prevention and safety management. Two kinds of experimental methods (C80 calorimetry and accelerating rate calorimetry) were used to study the hazardous characteristics of BPO, and idea kinetic parameters, such as the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy were obtained. These results contribute to improve the safety in the reaction, transportation, and storage processes and help to the stability criterion of decomposition reaction of BPO.

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Vinylated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-M) was prepared by the reaction of POSS containing amine groups with acrylic acid. Azobenzene liquid crystalline copolymer (LCP-POSS) was then synthesized with 6.0 mol% POSS-M and 94.0 mol% acrylate monomer containing azobenzene liquid crystalline moiety (Azo-M) by free-radical copolymerization. Homopolymer of Azo-M (LCP) was also synthesized under the same conditions. Their thermal properties and liquid crystallinity were characterized by Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Wide-angle X-ray diffraction experiments (XRD) and polarized optical micrographs (POM). The results showed that LCP-POSS has higher thermal stability and glass transition temperature than pure LCP due to the incorporation of the rigid cage-like POSS. Especially, LCP-POSS exhibits enantiotropic smectic and nematic liquid crystalline behaviors, its smectic-nematic transition temperature (T SN) and nematic-isotropic transition temperature (T NI) are higher than those of pure LCP, which may promote and extend its applications on stimuli-responsive materials and devices.

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