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  • Author or Editor: Xu Li x
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Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2), polythiophene and polythiophene/TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel and solid-state reaction methods. Water-free iron(III) chloride (FeCl3) was used as an oxidant. The phase composition, morphology and the spectral properties of the products were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–Vis and FT-IR techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under sunlight irradiation. TEM results showed that the polythiophene/TiO2 composite particles were well dispersed, rod-like shaped with 20 × 80 nm dimensions. UV–Vis analysis indicated that the absorption edge of polythiophene/TiO2 was 605 nm. Compared with the unmodified TiO2 and bare polythiophene, polythiophene/TiO2 exhibited largely enhanced activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under sunlight irradiation. A degradation efficiency of methyl orange of 85.6% could be obtained within 120 min. The sensitization mechanism of polythiophene for the TiO2 photocatalyst is discussed briefly.

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Abstract  

Two marine sediment cores were collected from nearshore off Xinghua Bay mouth in Fujian, China and the 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 238U in the cores were measured using γ-spectroscopy. For the core ZK6, the activities of 40K were vertically homogeneous within measured error in the whole core and 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th showed large vertical variations with the same tendency. The sedimentation rates were 0.400 cm·y−1 above 50 cm and 0.737 cm·y−1 below depth of 50 cm. The change of sedimentation rates indicates the heterotaxy, which was justified by the absence of 137Cs in the zone of 25–50 cm. For core ZK6, the sedimentation rate was 0.179 cm·y−1. Vertical distributions of 40K, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 238U in the core ZK18 are similar to each other although there were significant large variations with depth. The large variations of radioisotopes with depth in the cores mean that the sediment cores have been disturbed largely due to marine environment change. The mean activities of radioisotopes in the core ZK6 are higher than ZK18 that may be ascribed to different hydrodynamic environments.

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Abstract  

Atmospheric aerosols are generally collected on filters according to the International Monitoring System (IMS) designed in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). More information could be revealed when the filter sample is pretreated rather than measured directly by g-ray spectrometer. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is a suitable method that gives higher recoveries of elements from glass fibrous filters under different conditions. The results indicate that the MAE is a highly efficient and robust method for the treatment of glass fibrous filter samples. The recoveries of potential fission products from glass fibrous filter samples by microwave-assisted extraction meet the efficiency of the extraction by both aqua regia and 2% HCl.

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Abstract  

Differential elastic scattering cross sections for backscattering of 0.96–2.74 MeV protons incident on an aluminum layer covered by a gold layer deposited on a graphite crystal have been measured. The lowest proton energy in the experiment is in the Rutherford backscattering energy region. The measured cross sections are compared with the previous data and presented in graphical and tabular forms.

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Abstract

This study compares the syntactic complexity between translational and non-translational English across four genres (i.e. fiction, news, general prose, and academic prose) and examines the connections between various forms and degrees of syntactic complexity measures and explicitation. Fourteen syntactic complexity indices were examined based on a one-million-word translational English corpus (COTE) and a one-million-word non-translational English corpus (i.e. FLOB), respectively. This study shows that syntactic explicitation in translations varies with the formality of discourse. The most significant complexity difference between translational vis-à-vis non-translational English is found in fiction, which is regarded as the major contributor to translational English syntactic complexity. No significant difference in syntactic complexity was observed between the two types of academic English texts. Translational English news and general prose stand between fiction and academic texts. Translational fiction and news are characterised by more phrasal complexity features such as coordinate and complex nominal phrases, and a key indicator of translational English general prose complexity is subordination. The findings of this study will help students of translation to make informed decisions on the arrangement of sentence structures when given texts of different genres.

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Abstract  

Effects of gaseous hydrogenation on crystallization behavior of melt-spun Mg63Pr15Ni22 amorphous ribbons have been investigated. The crystallization peak temperature T p1 shifted to higher temperature with increasing heating rate for the un-hydrogenated Mg63Ni22Pr15 metallic glass, however, it is nearly unchanged for the hydrogenated sample. The present work indicates that the crystallization is a nucleation-and-growth process for the un-hydrogenated Mg63Ni22Pr15 metallic glass. However, the crystallization of hydrogenated sample begins with nucleation and then diffusion-controlled growth takes place.

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Abstract  

Li2O–Al2O3–SiO2 glass-ceramics were prepared with Ta2O5 as nucleating agent, the crystallization mechanism and microstructure evolution were investigated by DTA, XRD, and SEM technologies. With increasing amount of Ta2O5 from 2 to 6 mol%, the crystallization activation energy decreased from 297.73 to 218.66 kJ mol−1, while the crystallization index increased from 1.76 to 3.39. In addition, the cluster of dendritic crystals and lamellar structure obtained in T-2 glass-ceramics indicated a typical two-dimensional crystallization mechanism, and the formation of spherical β-quartz solid solution in T-4 specimens, with average size of 50–70 nm, was mainly due to bulk crystallization mechanism. It was considered that Ta2O5 promoted the nucleation and crystallization of LAS glass by precipitating the crystalline precursor phase of Ta2O5, which acted as nuclei for the subsequent crystal growth. Eventually, the diffusion and crystallization process, microstructure morphology, as well as the secondary grain growth were also investigated.

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Abstract

Two metal-organic frameworks, Ca(2,6-NDC)(DMF) (1) and Mn3(2,6-NDC)3(DMF)4 (2) (where 2,6-NDC = 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate and DMF = N,N′-dimethylformamide) have been solvothermally synthesized under optimized conditions and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TG analysis. The thermal decomposition characteristics were investigated under air atmosphere from 300 to 1,170 K (for 1) and from 300 to 971 K (for 2). The molar heat capacities were measured from 198 to 548 K (for 1) and from 198 to 448 K (for 2) by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) for the first time. The fundamental thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy variations with temperature were calculated based on the experimentally determined molar heat capacities.

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Youzimai is a widespread wheat landrace and has been used extensively in breeding programs in China. In order to assess the genetic variation between and within Youzimai accessions, samples of 31 landrace accessions of wheat, all called ‘Youzimai’, were collected from 6 geographic regions in China and evaluated using morphological traits, seedling resistance to powdery mildew, gliadin and microsatellite markers. Typical differences among accessions were observed in morphological characteristics. Forty-five (58.4%) of 77 assayed SSR markers showed polymorphism over the entire collection and total 226 alleles were identified with an average of 5.02 alleles per locus. SSR data indicated that the accessions from Hebei province were the most diverse, as evidenced by greatest number of region-specific alleles and highest diversity index. These accessions, therefore, probably experienced the most substantial morphological and molecular evolution as a result of various natural and anthropomorphic influences. On the other hand, differentiation in gliadin phenotypes was found among seeds within 80.6% of total accessions and average 61.5% of entire collections showed heterogeneous and comprised resistant plants in reaction to powdery mildew, suggesting the presence of a wide diversity within the wheat landrace. By developing an intimate knowledge of the available wheat genotypes, appropriate selections can be made for commercial application in order to conserve and exploit the diversity of the wheat landraces.

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