The inheritance of plant height, tiller number per plant, spike height and 1000-kernel weight was studied using a Jinks-Hayman diallel analysis in a 8×8 wheat (
L.) cross population with the following bread wheat cultivars: Cumhuriyet (1), Kasifbey (2), Ziyabey (3), Marmara (4), Basribey (5), Malabadi (6), Yüregir (7) and Seri-82 (8). The data analysis showed that the additive variance component (
) was significant for plant height, spike height and 1000-kernel weight at 1% level. The
parameter which is effect of dominant and recessive genes has a positive value for all four traits studied and was significant for plant height at 1% level. Dominance variance component (
), corrected dominance variance component (
) and dominancy level variance component (
) were significant for all four traits studied. The Wr-Vr graphs indicated overdominance can be inferred for tiller number number per plant, spike height and 1000-kernel weight while partial dominance could be inferred for plant height.
Today, the use of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control units continues in many control applications due to their simple structure. In areas such as pressure, temperature, flow control, PID control element is used and many new methods are applied in adjusting control parameters. In this study, the LTR 701 Controlled Airflow and Temperature Experimental System was used to study the temperature and pressure control at different flow rates in the pipelines. In this control system, temperature was controlled with PID control element, pressure was controlled with PI control element, and reaction of control parameters at different temperatures and pressures were investigated. Also, temperature was controlled as cascade with PI element in elementary controller and P element in secondary controller. The manual adjustment method has been applied to adjust the control parameters. In addition, the experimental system is modelled in MATLAB-SIMULINK. On this model, simulation results showed that it is matching the experimental results.
Due to some failure during the flying of drone systems, it is necessary to design and analyse compact and changeble muti rotor drone systems by using softwares. Multi-engine aircrafts are the mechatronic systems consisting of body frame, electronic control systems, rotors and blades. In the simulations realized in this work special focus has been given to the body frame due to the presence of mechanical and electronic components inside. Analysis of different vibration and force effects occurring on the whole system during the flight with high accuracy is vital for the design process of multi-engine aircrafts. In this work, a novel design procedure has been applied for the multi-engine aircraft structures including 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 rotors and then the vibration and force effects occurring during the flight have been analyzed. As a result of detailed modal analysis carried out for different vibration frequencies, it has been observed that the vibration frequencies occurring during the flight vary between 7 and 10 Hz. Moreover, from the results obtained, it has been observed that the vibration frequency decreases while the number of rotors increased. As a result of these decreases in the vibration frequency, it has also been observed that the deformations in the body frame increased.