In this study, we aimed to observe whether curcumin (cur), a polyphenolic compound derived from the dietary spice turmeric, a yellow substance obtained from the root of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, has any protective effect against blue light irradiation in human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. For this purpose, we evaluated the intracellular calcium release mechanism, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), procaspase-3/-9 protein expression levels, caspase activation, and reactive oxygen species levels. ARPE-19 cells were divided into four main groups, such as control, cur, blue light, and cur + blue light. Results were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests as post hoc tests. The cells in cur and cur + blue light samples were incubated with 20 μM cur. Blue light exposure was performed for 24 h in an incubator. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic-free Ca2+ [Ca2+]i concentrations were higher in the blue light exposure samples than in the control samples; however, their levels were determined as significantly lower in the cur and cur + blue light exposure samples than in the blue light samples alone. PARP and procaspase-3 levels were significantly higher in blue light samples. Cur administration significantly decreased PARP and procaspase-3 expression levels. Reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were lower in the blue light exposure samples, although they were higher in the cur and cur + blue light exposure samples. Caspase-3 and -9 activities were lower in the cur samples than in the blue light samples. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were significantly higher in the blue light exposure samples. In conclusion, cur strongly induced regulatory effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca2+ levels, VEGF levels, PARP expression levels, and caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in ARPE-19 cells.