Authors:T. Oi, Y. Kikawada, T. Honda, T. Ossaka and H. Kakihana
Determination of the lanthanoids in a neutral hot spring water has been studied by menas of neutron activation analysis. The aluminium coprecipitation process, which used aluminium as the collector of the lanthanoids, was incorporated in the preparation of a sample for irradiation. Nine lanthanoids, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Tm, Yb and Lu, were determined at ppt levels with satisfactory precision, indicating the effectiveness of aluminium coprecipitation.
Authors:Y. Kikawada, T. Honda, T. Oi, T. Ossaka and H. Kakihana
Neutron activation analysis was successfully applied to the determination of Th and U at ppt levels in a neutral hot spring water. Blank test corrections were found to be essential to reach the final determined values. Normal NAA is a better method for the Th determination than epithermal NAA, while both NAAs are nearly equally effective for U determination.
Authors:T. Oi, Y. Kikawada, T. Honda, T. Ossaka and H. Kakihana
Determination of the lanthanoids, thorium and uranium in silicate rocks has been investigated by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Seven or eight lanthanoids and thorium and uranium were determined by non-destructive instrumental NAA. The numbers of the lanthanoids determined were increased and errors on the final values were reduced by pre-irradiation treatments, which included a coprecipitation process with aluminium as collector to remove the alkali metals and halogens and a solvent extraction process to eliminate iron. The necessity of scandium removal was indicated.
Authors:M. Yui, Y. Kikawada, T. Oi, T. Honda and T. Nozaki
Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) of rock salts have been measured by neutron activation analysis. Original salt samples were
treated in advance of neutron irradiation so that Ln's were enriched and amounts of interfering nuclides were reduced. The
contents of Ln's were at ppt-sub ppb levels and were comparable with or slightly lower than those of solar salts. The Ln abundance
patterns of the salts were those with relative depletion in the heavy Ln's, thus having negative slopes. It was indicated
that, when salt deposit was formed, Ln's were taken up by anhydrite more preferentially than by halite.
Authors:S. Nishijima, Y. Honda, S. Tagawa and T. Okada
The molecular state of epoxy resins for cryogenic use has been studied in terms of positron lifetime measurement. The addition of plasticizer increased the free volume in the epoxy and hence the ductility of the epoxy at room temperature was increased. The fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures, however, decreased. The increase of molecular weight between crosslinks decreased the free volume in the epoxy at room temperature and increased the fracture toughness slightly at cryogenic temperature. Based on the data the molecular state model desired for cryogenic application was proposed and the nano-sized silica dispersed epoxy was prepared by means of sol-gel method to follow the model. The cryogenic properties of the silica dispersed epoxy and the free volume evaluated by positron annihilation lifetime were also discussed.
A total of 19 elements in the samples of atmospheric deposition collected in Kawasaki, Japan, were determined by neutron activation
analysis, ICPAES and flame photometry. The amounts of soil dust depositions were larger in springs and those of Sb and Zn
depositions were larger in summers than in the other seasons. The values of the enrichment factors were higher for Sb and
Zn than for the other elements determined throughout the sampling period. A factor analysis showed that the two elements were
characterized as industrial components. Rubber products like tires that contain noncombustibles and rubber accelerators were
a possible origin of high concentrations of Sb and Zn in the present samples.
Authors:Y. Sakuma, K. Matsuoka, C. Honda, K. Matsumoto and K. Endo
The dynamics of redox related elements (Fe, Co, Zn, and Se) were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis as
a function of rat age in the range of 4 to 16 weeks. Activity levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid
reactive substance (TBARS) were assayed, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations were measured for the same liver homogenates using an X-band ESR spectrometer. The oxidative stress, the
aging effect, and the mineral valance are discussed.
Authors:S. Shibata, Y. Takashima, R. Gensho and M. Honda
The nuclide53Mn was produced by the following three nuclear reactions,52Cr(d, n)53Mn,51V(3He n)53Mn and50Cr(α, n), (α, p)53Mn. Enriched52Cr and50Cr metal targets were prepared on copper plate holder by electrodeposition. The commercially available natural vanadium foil
was used for the51V(3He, n)53Mn reaction. Each target was bombarded in a cyclotron. Manganese was extracted and purified without using carrier from the
bombarded targets by anion and cation exchanges and solvent extraction. The isotopic ratio53Mn/55Mn was measured by mass spectrometry and the amount of55Mn was determined by neutron activation analysis. The activity of53Mn obtained was 7 dpm by 750 millicoulombs in3He bombardment (E3He=20 MeV). The activity due to by-product54Mn was about several thousands times higher than that of53Mn in3He and deuteron bombardments, which were produced through51V(3He, γ)54Mn and53Cr(d, n)54Mn. In alpha bombardment (Eα=15 MeV), the activity of53Mn produced was 8 dpm by 95 millicoulombs. The activity ratio, dpm54Mn/dpm53Mn, was about 3, and this ratio was the best one among the results so far obtained.
Concentration of lanthanides (Lns) in alunite group mineral samples from the Kusatsu-Shirane volcano area, Gunma, Japan, were
determined by neutron activation analysis. Their Ln abundance patterns showed enrichment of light Lns relative to their original
rocks and GSJ geochemical reference samples of feldspars. It was found that the concentration of light Lns increased with
increasing concentration of K and P. The positive correlation between the light Lns and P concentration suggested the formation
of florencite, whereas the positive correlation between the concentration of light Lns and K may reflect the difference between
the solubility of double salts of K and Ln sulfates of light Lns and heavy Lns, respectively.
Authors:H Kataoka, J Nakano, Y Kondo, Y Honda, J Sakamoto, T Origuchi and M Okita
This study examined the aging effect on disuse muscle atrophy prevention using heat stress. Wistar rats aged 7 and 60 weeks were divided into three groups as follows: control, immobilized (Im), and immobilized and heat stressed (ImH). Heat stress was given by immersing the hindlimbs in hot water (42 °C) for 60 min, once in every 3 days and the gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles were extracted after 14 days. Muscle-fiber types were classified using ATPase staining. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was assessed through Western blotting. In GAS muscle of both groups and SOL muscle of 7-week-old rats, the fiber diameter of each muscle type in the ImH group significantly increased compared with that in the Im group. However, this could not be observed in the SOL muscle of the 60-week-old rats. The increased percentage of type-I fibers and variability of types I and II muscle-fiber diameter were evident in the SOL muscle of the 60-week rats. HSP70 was significantly elevated in the ImH group compared with in the Im group in both muscle types of both age groups. Thus, effectiveness of heat stress in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy appears unsatisfactory in aging muscle fibers.