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  • Author or Editor: Y Tamaki x
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Abstract  

The VK X-rays induced by the electron capture decay of51Cr-labeled compounds and the fluorescent X-rays of the vanadium compounds have been measured with a Bragg spectrometer. The evident chemical shifts of the K 1 and K 2 lines were observed for the oxidation state both by electron capture and photoionization. The differences of the K peak energy (K 1 and K 2 peaks) with the modes of the excitation were also obtained. The K peaks of51Cr shift to lower energy by ca. 0.5 eV than those of vanadium at the same oxidation state. This is because the probability of the electron shake up (and shake off) during the electron capture decay is extremely small, as compared to photoionization.

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Abstract  

Red-thermoluminescence (RTL) dating was applied to quartz grains from a flat roof-tile of “Shin-Yakushiji” temple, Nara, built in Japan, probably 1258 years ago. Based on overlapping patterns with other roof-tiles, one flat roof-tile was separated into several zones. The equivalent doses were accurately evaluated to be 4.4–5.1 Gy for each zone. The evaluation of annual doses has been done under the consideration of overlapped numbers of roof-tiles and soil layers under the roof-tiles. Evaluated RTL ages were in good agreement with the construction date of the temple. The present evaluated age was the youngest one within several ages we previously have been deduced from the RTL dating.

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This study aimed to evaluate neuromuscular activation in the scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) during progressively increased inspiratory flow, produced by increasing the respiratory rate under inspiratory-resistive loading using a mask ventilator. Moreover, we attempted to identify the EMG inflection point (EMGIP) on the graph, at which the root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal values of the inspiratory muscles against the inspiratory flow velocity acceleration abruptly increases, similarly to the EMG anaerobic threshold (EMGAT) reported during incremental-resistive loading in other skeletal muscles. We measured neuromuscular activation of healthy male subjects and found that the inspiratory flow velocity increased by approximately 1.6-fold. We successfully observed an increase in RMS that corresponded to inspiratory flow acceleration with ρ ≥ 0.7 (Spearman’s rank correlation) in 17 of 27 subjects who completed the experimental protocol. To identify EMGIP, we analyzed the fitting to either a straight or non-straight line related to the increasing inspiratory flow and RMS using piecewise linear spline functions. As a result, EMGIP was identified in the scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles of 17 subjects. We believe that the identification of EMGIP in this study infers the existence of EMGAT in inspiratory muscles. Application of surface EMG, followed by identification of EMGIP, for evaluating the neuromuscular activation of respiratory muscles may be allowed to estimate the signs of the respiratory failure, including labored respiration, objectively and non-invasively accompanied using accessory muscles in clinical respiratory care.

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