In order to determine thorium and uranium traces in geochemical and cosmochemical samples, we developed an ICP-MS procedure, in which an anion-exchange step was introduced after sample digestion to separate major matrix elements, leading to decrease the dilution factor and increase the sensitivity for Th and U. The ICP-MS procedure was compared to the RNAA procedure which we recently developed for the same purpose. Both ICP-MS and RNAA procedures developed were found to yield similar detection limits (sub ppb) for Th and U.
Authors:Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Li, H. Xiao, and Z. Chai
The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants.
Intact chloroplasts were isolated from mesophyll protoplasts of Brassia napus. Concentrations of 8 rare earth elements (REEs) in the chloroplasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that there were trace amounts of REEs in the chloroplasts, which corresponded to 1 atom of REEs per 2000 chlorophyll molecules. About 30% of the total REEs in the leaves are localized in the chloroplasts and the light REEs were enriched with respect to the heavy elements of the series.
Authors:J. Chai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Kokubu, M. Magara, S. Sakurai, S. Usuda, Y. Oura, and M. Ebihara
In order to search for isotopic anomalies of U caused by the disintegration of 247Cm in meteorite samples, an analytical scheme for determining 235U/238U ratio for a small amount of uranium (less than 1 ng U) was established. The isotopic ratio of U was determined by double-focusing
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS). With a great improvement of chemical procedure for purifying the
uranium fraction separated from meteorite samples, a variation in 235U/238U ratios was resolved at an order of ±4‰ for 100 ppt or 200 pg U in solution. For applying the procedure in searching an evidence
of 247Cm as an extinct radionuclide in the early solar system, a selective chemical dissolution of constituent minerals of meteorites
using EDTA and HCl was introduced and a chemical purification scheme of uranium for ICP-MS was established.
Authors:Y. Song, D. D. Xu, Z. F. Chai, H. Ouyang, W. Y. Feng, and X. Y. Mao
PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously in Beijing, China, and analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS. Seasonal variations of the concentrations
of ambient particles and their elemental compositions were found. The main sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in spring were the crust, coal burning and vehicle exhaust, in which the former was significant. During a strong dust storm,
the concentrations of the crustal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 increased remarkably, but the concentrations of some anthropogenic elements decreased. The enrichment factors of these anthropogenic
elements also decreased sharply during the dust storm, which indicated that they were mostly originated from local anthropogenic
pollution and diluted by the huge amount of dust.
Authors:C. Chai, S. Ma, X. Mao, Y. Zhou, Y. Sun, D. Xu, Q. Zhang, and Z. Yang
Although Ir anomaly has been discovered in a number of C/T boundaries in the world, no positive results of this anomaly in Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary were given. There are many well-developed P/T sections in South China. One of representative sections is located at the Baoqing quarry, Meishan Town, Changxin County, Zhejiang Province. Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pt, Cu and Mo were determined by the radiochemical procedure developed in our laboratory. (1) Besides those accessible by INAA. The results reveal that the refractory siderophile and other chalcophile elements have certain enrichment near and at the boundary layer. However, the Ir/Au and other element abundance ratios fail to accord with the extraterrestrial values. The nature of the boundary event was discussed in terms of elemental geochemistry.
Authors:F. Zhang, N. Q. Liu, W. Y. Feng, X. F. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. F. Chai
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are one of most common nutritional deficiencies in the world. The nuclear analytical methods
(ENAA, SRXRF and XRF) were employed to study the effect of iodine deficiency on the metal ion changes during the stage of
brain development, combined with biochemical methods. The results show that the distributions of iron, copper and zinc varied
to different extent in different brain regions and subcellular fractions of the ID rat brains. These distributional changes
of trace elements might be associated with the brain damage caused by the iodine deficiency.
Authors:L. Lv, L. Zhao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Y. Chai, and G. Zhang
Epimedium pubescens Maxim. and Epimedium koreanum Nakai. are two common and confused species of Herba Epimedii in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition. Different species and growing conditions lead to chemical differences between the two species which may result in the improper clinical usage. In this work, a new method based on rapid-resolution liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC/TOFMS) has been developed for identification and differentiation of major flavonoids in two kinds of Epimedium extract and rat plasma. The compounds were identified effectively based on the accurate extract masses and formulae acquired by RRLC/TOFMS. The fragmentation rules deduced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) were successfully implemented in distinguishing some of the isomers, further validating the results. By using the combined analytical techniques, a total of 40 major flavonoids in extracts of two kinds of Epimedium were identified within 30 min, including 31 common components and 9 characteristic components. After oral administration, three prototype compounds in rat plasma were detected by comparing the constituents measured in vitro with those in vivo, and five metabolites were identified by contrasting the fragmentation rules. The identification and structural elucidation of the chemical constituents provided essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies on different species of Epimedium.
Authors:Y. Xiong, D. Xu, Z. Chai, X. Li, Q. Tian, H. Zhou, W. Luo, and X. Fang
The paper presents the results of determination of extractable organohalogens (EOX) by instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography (GC), in atmospheric
precipitation in Shanghai, China, from January to August 2005. The results showed that EOCI was the major component of organohalogens
in precipitation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of EOBr and EOI was observed (r2 = 0.75), which suggested that EOBr and EOI in precipitation might mainly come from the same sources. There were no clear
seasonal trends for the concentrations of EOX. The concentrations of ΣPCBs ranged from 0.2–2.8 ng/l, with the dominant PCBs
containing 3 to 5 chlorine atoms. HCH was the predominant pesticide in precipitation, accounting for over 80% of total OCPs,
in which β-HCH took 28%–72% of total HCH. Also, there may be an evidence for significantly historical usage of DDT.
Authors:F. Zhang, W. Feng, J. Shi, M. Wang, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Chai
The damage in the pup rat brain with low-level mercury exposure, and the concentration variation of trace elements in the
rat hippocampus was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF). Meanwhile, the levels and activities
of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA)
in the hippocampus were also measured. The results showed that the low dose of inorganic mercury prenatal and postnatal exposure
could lead to the significant increase of both copper and zinc contents and remarkable decrease of iron content in pup rat
brain. Compared to the control group, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GSH-Px, SOD, the contents of GSH and MDA
in the pup rat hippocampus of mercury-exposed group fell down obviously.