A potential68Ge/68Ga generator system has orginally been established by using adsorption chromatography on inorganic adsorbent SiO2. This type of generator delivers 90% of68Ga with the breakthrough levels of68Ge lower than 10–3% per 10 ml of collection volume and readily provides tracer for this experimental study. Three routes for the separation of67Ga from Zn target, including solvent extraction with allylether and cation exchange with Dowex 50W-×8 as well as anion exchange with AG1-×8, have been investigated and compared. The simulated experiments were performed with synthetic solutions containing appropriate amounts of Zn, the possible impurities, Fe, Cu and their radioactive tracers. The results show that a single stage allylether solvent extraction permits an extremely high recovery yield of 99% of67Ga with a desired radionuclidic purity and almost complete removal of the chemical impurities. By a combination of cation-exchange separation followed with allylether extraction, a slightly lower yield (89%) but highest purity of the product can be obtained. The anion exchange process is of less interest due to its low recovery of67Ga and poor decontamination of the impurities.
A gas sampler with lead shield has been designed for transferring the grab gas sample taken from the sampling station of Taiwan nuclear power reactor. The methods involving gas chromatography and gamma spectrometry have been developed for the determination of fission gases. A gas chromatograph equipped with TCD was used for measurement of gas composition. Column requirements are identified and optimum operating conditions are discussed. A single analysis is completed within 25 minutes for all of the gas constitutents and 12 minutes for only Xe and Kr. The detection limit is 0.005 mm partial pressure for Kr and Xe and a precision of ±1% relative is achieved for all the sample constituents. Combined error determinations for the method denote an attainable accuracy of less than ±2% for constituents at a sample pressure above 10 mm. Mixing and dispensing of the radioactive gases were carried out in a special gas mixing line. In experiment, calibration factors for measurement of133Xe and85Kr in ampules are determined in an isotope calibrator and by Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometry. The relative precisions of 0.14% and 0.5% are readily achieved for85Kr and133Xe, respectively. The calibration uncertainty in85Kr measurement is 0.4%.
The characteristic properties of the chelating resin-3926(II) and the advantage of using it in the preconcentration procedure was described. The chemical recoveries determined by the trace technique were presented. The preconcentration procedure put forward in this paper may be used satisfactorily in neutron activation analysis.
Authors:X. Zheng, Y. Yu, G. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wu, D. Tang, Y. Cheng and Y. Zhang
Changes in microbial population, pH, sugar, organic acid, anthocyanins, total soluble phenolics, and anti-glucosidase contents were measured during fermentation of mulberry juice at 30 °C by probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides showing rapid growth after an approximately 1-day lag phase and reaching a maximum of 8.6 log CFU ml−1 after 4 d. During the rapid growth phase, the main mulberry juice sugars, glucose and fructose, were largely consumed, and the acidic metabolites, lactic acid and acetic acid, were produced accordingly. A slow decrease in the concentration of the main organic acid, citric acid, was also observed during fermentation. After 4 d fermentation, anthocyanin content showed a 44.4% reduction, but the total amount of soluble phenolics and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity showed no significant changes (P>0.05). This suggests that L. mesenteroides fermentation of mulberry juice is a good strategy to enhance its probiotic value and to decrease the sugar content without changing the anti-glucosidase activity, which is required to reduce postprandial rise in blood glucose.
Authors:Y. Chou, J. Huang, J. Tseng, S. Cheng and C. Shu
Organic peroxides have caused many serious explosions and fires that were promoted by thermal instability, chemical pollutants,
and even mechanical shock. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been employed in polymerization and for producing phenol and dicumyl
peroxide (DCPO). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to assess the thermal hazards associated with CHP contacting
sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0), peak temperature (Tmax), and enthalpy (ΔH) were obtained. Experimental data were obtained using DSC and curve fitting using thermal safety software (TSS) was employed
to obtain the kinetic parameters. Isothermal microcalorimetry (thermal activity monitor, TAM) was used to investigate the
thermal hazards associated with storing of CHP and CHP mixed with NaOH under isothermal conditions.
TAM showed that in the temperature range from 70 to 90°C an autocatalytic reaction occurs. This was apparent in the thermal
curves. Depending on the operating conditions, NaOH may be one of the chemicals or catalysts incompatible with CHP. When CHP
was mixed with NaOH, the T0 is lower and reactions become more complex than those associated with assessment of the decomposition of the pure peroxide.
The data by curve fitting indicated that the activation energy (Ea) for the induced decomposition is smaller than that for decomposition of CHP in the absence of hydroxide.
Authors:X. Zeng, Y. Chen, S. Cheng, X. Meng and Q. Wang
A novel method for the determination of rate constants of reactions, the time-variable method, is proposed in this paper. The method needs only three time points (t), peak heights () and pre-peak areas (), obtained from the measured thermoanalytical curve. It does not require the thermokinetic reaction to be completed. It utilizes data-processing on a computer to give the rate constants. Four reaction systems, including a first-order reaction, second-order reactions (with equal concentrations and with unequal concentrations) and a third-order reaction, were studied with this method. The method was validated and its theoretical basis was verified by the experimental results.
Authors:Y. Meguro, W. Cheng, H. Imura and Z. Yoshida
Extracton, of Am3+ in benzene with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and crown ethers (CEs) such as 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6, dibenzo-18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown-8, and dibenzo-24-crown-8 was investigated. Synergistic effect by CE was observed regardless of the kind of CE examined. The extracted species was found to be Am(TTA)3(CE), and adduct formation constants between Am(TTA)3 and CE in the organic phase were determined. The sequence of constant could not be explained only by basicity of CE and the steric effect of CE should be taken into account to elucidate the adduct complex formation.
DSC and TG-DTA techniques were used to investigate micro-sized silver powder particles and the adsorption of ethyl cellulose
on these particles in a solution of ethyl acetate. The apparent specific heat of the silver particles was determined, and
the kinetics of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of these adsorbed silver particles was investigated. Results show
that the apparent specific heat and desorption kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis techniques could be used to
characterize certain physico-chemical properties of such a particulate system.
Authors:Y. Q. Cheng, Y. X. Zhang, S. D. Qi, H. L. Chen and X. G. Chen
1,7-Dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone (X1) and 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone (X2) are two important xanthones of the Tibetan medicinal plant Gentianopsis paludosa (Hook. f.) Ma. They are very similar in structure, the only difference being exchange of OH and OCH3 at the 7 and 8 positions. By calculations based on the geometry of the molecules using the MM+ force field, the different distances between the hydroxyl groups of the two xanthones were obtained (4.64774 Å for X2 and 7.19412 Å for X1), therefore, the two hydroxyl groups of X1 should freely interact with more water molecules than those of X2 in aqueous solution. In other words, X2 is more hydrophobic than X1. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was therefore chosen for separation of the compounds. The optimum separation conditions were: 20 mm borate + 20 mm SDS (pH 9.8) as running buffer, 17.5 kV applied potential, and detection wavelength 260 nm. The two xanthones were well separated in 9.0 min, with Gaussian peak shapes. The repeatability of the MEKC method (expressed as RSD) for X1 and X2 was 0.9 and 1.1%, respectively, for migration time, and 3.1 and 1.4% for peak area. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.41 μg mL−1 for X1 and 0.82 μg mL−1 for X2. The recovery of the MEKC method for the two xanthones was also satisfactory.
Authors:Y. Jao, W. Cheng, H. Chen, C. Shaeh, C. Huang and Y. Lin
This study was performed under the joint TRMC/INER program for the determination of low level85Kr and133Xe concentrations in the environmental air samples. Based on cryogenic adsorption of krypton and xenon on charcoal followed by chromatographic separation from other gases, the85Kr and133Xe recovered from 200 liters of atmospheric air can be determined by either on-line gas flow proportional counter or liquid scintillation counting. The recovery yields of krypton and xenon examined by using85Kr and133Xe tracers were nearly 100%. The minimum detectable activity of85Kr and133Xe by gas flow proportional counting is about 7.40 Bq. The method is satisfactory for environmental monitoring applications under abnormal conditions of nuclear facilities. However, for lower level environmental85Kr and133Xe measurements, the liquid scintillation counting method can be applied due to their extremely low detection limits (i.e. 0.107 Bq and 0.093 Bq for85Kr and133Xe, respectively). Using this method, the measurable limits of concentrations are 0.535 Bq/m3 and 0.466 Bq/m3 for85Kr and133Xe, respectively.