By applying of Bradford's law to analysis of the source documents and their references by classification systems researchers in the world, this paper presents core authors of the field during the period 1981–1990. The findings show that 1) core authors of the international classification systems literature are the Library of Congress, M. Dewey, S. Ranganathan, J. Comaromi, A. Neelameghan, L. Chan and K. Markey; 2) the highly cited authors are linked either to the developers of the classification systems or to a research center, or else they authored the most frequently cited books; and 3) the data confirms to Bradford's law and the unusual rising tail of Bradford distribution is appeared and explained.
The popular areca nuts were sampled and their stuffed white and red lime were collected simultaneously from four marketplaces in Taiwan in different growing seasons. Samples of areca nut were treated via homogenizer prior to freeze drying, about 100–150 mg each of the areca nut and lime were packed into PE bag. Samples were irradiated with neutron flux about 1012 n·cm–2·s–1. A total of 17, 18, and 13 elements was analyzed with INAA for white lime, red lime, and areca nut, respectively. The results indicated that Ca have the highest concentration in both limes. Most elements in collected samples have wide range of concentrations among different seasons and marketplaces. It is suggested that the elemental concentration of areca nut and limes exists in divergence originated from various farms in Taiwan. In addition, four elements of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Sc are probably overtaken by persons having chewing habit of areca nut and their effects on oral cancer are discussed.
The kinetic distribution of64Cu,75Se, and69mZn radioactive tracers were determined in tissues of mice bearing ascites tumors and healthy ones. The HPGe gamma-ray spectrometric detection system was used for radionuclide analysis in tissues which were sampled at various periods after tracer injection during ascitic tumor growth. Significantly different distribution of64Cu,75Se, and69mZn were found in colon, small intestine, and liver of tumor-bearing mice. There was a dcerease of75Se in ascites and blood of tumor-bearing mice. The64Cu and69mZn concentration varied significantly in kidneys, and a similar effect was observed in the spleen for64Cu, too. A distinct variation of tracer distribution is also found at different stages after treatment. The results are discussed within the context of a correlation between elemental concentration and tumor-growth.
The contents of twelve minor and trace elements in liver, ascites, and blood of sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis at various tumor growing stages. Biological samples were irradiated by reactor neutrons and subsequently subject to direct analysis using a high-resolution HPGe -spectrometer. A statistically significant difference for the concentration of Na and Cl in all tumor samples relative to those in a normal control group is found. During the tumor growing period, concentration of Mg, K, Fe, Se, Rb, Cu, Zn, and Mn in liver and ascites of tumored mice vary with respect to the tumor size. Each elemental concentration and its biological function in the tumored mice is discussed and possible correlation to humans is analyzed.
Trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected monthly at suburban and rural areas in Korea were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Neutron irradiation of the samples was done at the irradiation hole (neutron flux 1·1013 n·cm–2·s–1) of the TRIGA Mark-III Research Reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. For the verification of the analytical technique, two reference materials, NIST SRM-1648 and NIES CRM-8, were chosen for analysis. The accuracy and precision of the determinations of the 40 elements were compared with the reference values. We used this method (1) to analyze 30 trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected monthly with the high volume air sampler (PM-10) at two different locations and (2) to confirm the possibility of using this method as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources.
Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn,
Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical
results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify
the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to
be 104–106 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations
of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 times smaller than the standard deviation for individual's
hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification.
A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation technique was used to analyze human hair samples collected from people living in metropolitan and rural areas in Korea. Samples were also collected from factory workers and cancer patients. Hair from metropolitan area residents contain higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Br, Mn, I and S than rural area residents. Concentrations of I and S from cancer patients, Mg, Zn, Al, Na, Mn and As from glassware workers were relatively higher. The results show that the trace element concentrations of the hair are possibly related to the trace element concentrations in the body.
The Korean government reported that in 2005, 4395 tons/day of sewage sludge were generated from sewage disposal facilities
in Korea and only 11.03% of it was reused. In addition, as a direct landfill of sewage sludge was forbidden from June 2003,
research for a relevant disposal technique has been increasing. In this study, the aims were to analyze the collected sewage
sludge samples and to evaluate the possibility for their reuse by a comparison of the elemental contents from a sewage sludge
and a cover soil. Sludge samples were collected from a sewage disposal plant in Daejeon city and the cover soil was produced
by a dilution of a sewage sludge with quicklime. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the elemental
contents in the samples. Twenty seven elements were analyzed and their concentrations were compared.
Authors:H. Cho, K. Chun, K. Park, Y. Chung, and H. Kim
In the boron neutron capture therapy, an accurate determination of the boron content in a biological sample is very important.
The boron content was investigated with a standard solution of boron which was administered intraperitoneally with a dose
of 750 mg/kg body weight into mice induced cancer cells and tumors. The boron content for two types of a sample was compared
to the boronophenylalanine for the tumor and the ethylamine derivatives for the induced cancer cell, which were also investigated
for their accumulation rate in each organ such as blood, spleen, liver, kidney and brain. An analytical quality control was
carried out by using certified reference materials such as Peach Leaves, Apple Leaves and Spinach Leaves. The relative error
of the measured values was in good agreement within 2% to the certified values.
The concentration of radionuclides in environmental samples and the environmental radiation level (including cosmic rays) was monitored on Spratly Islets in South China Sea prior to the commercial operation of nearby Chinese nuclear power plants. Samples of coral sand, sea food, vegetation, water, and accumulated fallout on the islet were obtained and measured for radioactivity. Except for some exposure originating from minute amounts of60Co and137Cs, the radiation background is mainly emitted from naturally occurring radionuclides. Radiation levels including beta, gamma, and neutron on the islet have also monitored. Gamma dose rates for outdoor exposure averaged approximately 0.09 Sv/h; the neutron dose rate was about 0.003 Sv/h. Automatic radiation surveillance and a routine sampling program on the Spratly Islets are viewed as essential to provide an early warning in the Far East in case of a nuclear emergency.