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  • Author or Editor: Y. Guo x
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To investigate the nutritional characteristics of purple wheat, 41 kinds of nutrients were measured in seven purple wheat lines using one white wheat variety as control sample. Correlation analysis of nutrient contents was performed. Results show that the amounts of 40 kinds of nutrients in the purple wheat lines are higher than those of the control. For example, the amounts of sodium (Na) and manganese (Mn) in purple wheat are higher than the standards by 311.77–2017.65% and 548.15–733.33%, respectively; the contents of β + γ-vitamin E is higher than the standards by 300%; and zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are all higher than the control by 100%. Therefore, the purple wheat has obvious advantages in terms of the nutrient contents. Correlation analysis studies show that protein has significant positive correlations with Glu, Mo, Pro, Fe, Tyr and Ile. Anthocyanin has significant positive correlations with Mo and Glu, and significant negative correlations with free Trp and Ca. Carotenoid has significant positive correlations with His, Lys, Val, Leu, Arg, Gly and I, and significant negative correlations with Ca. This paper is a first report on comprehensive nutrients of several purple wheat lines. Our results suggest that purple wheat is rich in nutrients and there are many significant correlations among different nutrients. The valuable information is very useful in biofortification breeding and functional food development.

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The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675–3358 g/g) Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fernCitrus reticulata andBrassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (forCamellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera andZiziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (forGardenia jasminoides).

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Biochemical techniques, including pH variation, outsalting, ultracentrifugation, gel filtration chromatography and electrophoresis, etc., have been employed together with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to study the rare earth elements (REE) bound proteins in the natural plant fern,Dicranopteris dichitoma. INAA was also used to identify whether the proteins were bound firmly with REE. The results obtained show that two REE bound proteins (RBP-I and RBP-II) have been separated. The molecular weight of RBP-I on Sephadex G-200 gel column is about 8·105 Daltons and that of RBP-II is less than 12,400 Daltons, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE of the two proteins shows that they mainly have two protein subunits with MW 14,100 and 38,700 Daltons. They are probably conjugated proteins, glycoproteins with different glyco-units.

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The combustion energy of thioproline was determined by the precision rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K to be Δc U= –2469.301.44 kJ mol–1. From the results and other auxiliary quantities, the standard molar enthalpy of combustion and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioproline were calculated to be Δc H m θC4H7NO2S, (s), 298.15 K= –2469.921.44 kJ mol–1 and Δf H m θC4H7NO2S, (s), 298.15K= –401.331.54 kJ mol–1.

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The nano-iron oxyhydroxides (α- and γ-FeOOH) were synthesized by using three ferrous and ferric salts (FeSO4, FeCl2, Fe(NO3)3) as iron precursors under alkaline conditions. Morphologies of nano-iron oxyhydroxides were characterized by employing X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and specific surface area (SSA) analysis respectively. The occurrence of needle-like shape of nano-goethite and rod-like shape of nano-lepidocrocite were attributed to hydrolysis of Fe3+ cations and/or oxidization of Fe2+ at alkaline conditions in terms of XRD analysis. The N2-BET SSA and BJH (Barrett–Joyner–Halenda) pore size analysis showed that internal SSA of nano-lepidocrocite is higher than that of nano-goethite, although they have similar N2-BET SSAs. The distribution of average pore size of nano-iron oxyhydroxides are higher than that of predominant pore size due to formation of the heterogeneous nanoparticles under the experimental conditions. These nanoparticles possess the high sorption capacity and the strong affinity for contaminants. Application of nano-iron oxyhydroxides in environmental engineering plays an important role to remove a variety of contaminants, such as heavy-metal ions and organic pollutants.

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New hexamethylenetetramine complexes of antimony and bismuth trichloride were synthesized through a solid phase reaction of hexamethylenetetramine and antimony or bismuth trichloride. The formula of the complex is MCl3(C6H12N4)2⋅H2O (M=Sb, Bi).The crystal structure of the complexes belongs to monoclinic system and the lattice parameters: a=1.249 nm, b=1.4583 nm, c=1.6780 nm andβ=91.78 for SbCl3(C6H12N4)2⋅H2O and a=1.3250 nm, b=1.3889 nm, c=1.7449 nm and β=98.94 for BiCl3(C6H12N4)2⋅H2O. Far-infrared spectra reveal that the antimony or bismuth ion is coordinated by the nitrogen atom of the hexamethylenetetramine. The thermal analysis also demonstrates the complex formation between the antimony or bismuth ion and hexamethylenetetramine. The intermediate and final residues in the thermal decomposition process have been analyzed to check the pyrolysis reaction.

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The thiourea complexes of antimony and bismuth triiodide were synthesized by a direct reaction of antimony and bismuth triiodide with thiourea powder at room temperature. The formula of the complex is MI3[SC(NH2)2]3(M=Sb, Bi). The crystal structure of the complexes belongs to monoclinic system and the lattice parameters are a=1.4772 nm, b=1.6582 nm, c=2.0674 nm and β=90.81 for SbI3(SC(NH2)2)3 and a=1.4009 nm, b=2.0170 nm, c=2.0397 nm and β=90.84 for BiI3[SC(NH2)2]3. The infrared spectra reveal that the trivalent antimony or bismuth ion is coordinated by the nitrogen atom, not the sulfur atom of the thiourea. Thermal analysis shows that there are two times structure rearrangements or phase transformation in the complexes from 100 to 170C.

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The extraction of europium to a W/O microemulsion with an anionic surfactant was studied. In the sodium oleate (NaOL)/pentanol/heptane/NaCl system, the influence of aqueous-microemulsion ratio, concentration of NaOL, extraction temperature, concentration of cosurfactant, pH and salting-out agent on the extraction yield were investigated. Europium was probably extracted into the microemulsion phase in the form of Eu(OL)2Cl, and the extraction yield (E%) was above 99% when R = 8. The enthalpy and entropy of Eu(III) extraction were calculated to be −12.18 kJ/mol and −61.41 J/(mol K), respectively. The back-extraction is conducted by hydrochloric acid (0.8 mol/L), which provided better back-extraction yields (95.15%).

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Aegilops tauschii is the generally accepted D genome diploid donor of hexaploid wheat. The significance of Ae. tauschii HMW-GS genes on bread-making properties of bread wheat has been well documented. Among them, Ae. tauschii HMW-GS Dx5 t +Dy12 t was thought as the pair with potentially value in endowing synthetic hexaploid wheat with good end-use qualities. In this paper, we isolated and sequenced genes Dx5 t and Dy12 t from Ae. tauschii accession As63. Amino acid sequence comparison indicated that Dy12 t from Ae. tauschii is more similar to Dy10 rather than Dy12 of bread wheat. The sequence of Dx5 t in Ae. tauschii accession As63 showed higher similarity to that of Dx5 in bread wheat than others. However, it is notable that Dx5 t lacked the additional cysteine residue in Dx5, which is responsible for good bread-making quality in common wheat. Moreover, compared to Dx5, Dx5 t has an extra hexpeptide repetitive motif unit (SGQGQQ) as well as five amino acid substitutions.

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Phyllostachys edulis (PES), the most important bamboo species in China, is widely distributed in East Asia. Flavonoids, which are important bioactive natural compounds, often have similar structures, making their structural elucidation difficult. The aim of this study was to represent valuable, reliable mass spectral data for the identification of flavonoids in plant leaves. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was established for characterization and identification of the major flavonoids in PES leaf extract. A total of 13 flavonoids were simultaneously characterized, and their proposed characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways were investigated. Thirteen compounds were separated on an Agilent Zorbax RRHD SB-C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm). On the basis of comparing with the 4 reference standards and the literature data, the other 9 flavonoids were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Eight compounds (compounds 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12) were found in PES leaves for the first time. An efficient UPLC–QTOF-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the structural identification of flavonoids in PES leaves. These results have practical applications for the rapid identification and structural characterization of these compounds in crude bioactive extracts or mixtures.

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