To investigate the pathogens that racing pigeons in Taiwan are exposed to, a total of 3764 pigeons from 90 lofts were analysed by collection of blood samples in the period between October 2000 and September 2001. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed to detect antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), type 2 avian paramyxovirus (APMV-2), and egg drop syndrome '76 virus (EDS-76V). The agar-gel precipitin (AGP) test was used to detect antibodies against fowl adenovirus (FAV), goose parvovirus (GPV), and avian reovirus (REO). The virus neutralisation (VN) test was applied to detect antibodies against the serotypes FAV-1 and FAV-8. A rapid serum agglutination test was applied for the detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma spp. Antibodies to several infectious agents were found, including NDV (43.3%), EDS-76V (19.2%), FAV (0.8%), REO (0.5%), APMV-2 (0.2%), Mycoplasma columbinum (10.3%), M. columborale (7.1%), M. synoviae (1.8%) and M. gallisepticum (1.3%). Antibodies against GPV, FAV-1, and FAV-8 were not detected in any serum sample. NDV seroprevalence was significantly higher in pigeons of more than one year of age than in pigeons younger than one year. ND or EDS-76 seroprevalence of pigeons vaccinated with ND vaccine or EDS-76 vaccine was significantly higher than that of pigeons that did not receive any vaccination.
This paper is a study on a stable destruction method of radioactive waste ion exchange resins. According to the resin TGA
results, its decomposition occurred through three stages. And a sufficient retention time of the resins and an effective retention
capacity of SO2 gases and the doped metal compounds were required to destruct resins doped with radioactive metals stably. The resins doped
with radioactive metal surrogates were effectively destructed in the lab-scale MCO system. CO and SO2 emissions were below 100 and 1 ppm, respectively. And the surrogates were collected more than 99.9% in the molten carbonate.
Thus, the resins can be destructed stably in the MCO process.
Authors:H. Eun, Y. Cho, H. Park, I. Kim and H. Lee
In this paper, a separation method of radionuclides (Ba, Sr) from LiCl salt wastes generated from the electroreduction process
of spent nuclear fuel was studied to recover pure LiCl salts and reduce radioactive wastes. The method consisted of chemical
conversion process of BaCl2 and SrCl2 in LiCl molten salts by using lithium compounds and vacuum distillation process of LiCl salts. In the chemical conversion,
BaCl2 and SrCl2 in LiCl molten salts were mainly converted into (Ba,Sr)CO3 or (Ba,Sr)SO4. Contents of Ba and Sr in LiCl salts recovered from the vacuum distillation process were equal to about 0.01 of initial concentrations
of Ba and Sr in LiCl molten salts. These results will be utilized to recycle the LiCl salt wastes.
Authors:Y. Lee, S. Park, K. Choi, T. Horiguchi and H. Inoue
Correction equations of the coincidence-summing effect for efficiencies of HpGe detector based on the decay scheme were developed
by considering the summing up to triple coincidence. The correction equations which do not dependent on the kind of the Ge
detector are very useful for efficiency calibrations of a Ge detector in the energy region from 60 to 400 keV by using75Se radionuclide even with very short source-to-detector distances.
Authors:Y. Ito, H. Mohamed, K. Tanaka, K. Okamoto and K. Lee
Positron annihilation lifetimes were measured for several polymers in the atmosphere of high pressure CO2 gas. At low CO2 pressured both
3 andI3 decreased due to the Langmuir-type sorption, and at higher pressures their values recovered because the Henry-type sorption takes over. The amount of sorbed CO2 and dilation of the bulk volume were measured simultaneously, and the free volume fraction was determined at each CO2 pressure. The free volume fraction became smaller (for polyimide and polycarbonate) or slightly larger (for polyethylene) with the progress of sorption. However, the size of the o-Ps hole estimated from the
3 value increased regardless of the change of the free volume fraction. It appears that o-Ps is selectively looking at larger holes or expanding the holes in which it is accommodated. For polycarbonate, which remains to be glassy even at the largest CO2 sorption attained in the experiment, the o-Ps hole size became larger than that before sorption. This implies that, even if the polymer is glassy as bulk, the sorption site is strongly prone to molecular displacement by the pressure of the penetrating Ps. Cautious consideration is evoked about directly correlating the o-Ps lifetime and intensity with the free volume in general.
In petrochemistry, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is used in various resins for improving physical properties, which was produced
by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) with oxidization reaction, redox reaction, and dehydration reaction. The reactant, CHP, is a
typical organic hydroperoxide and has been intrinsically unstable and reactive due to its bivalent -O-O- structure which can
be broken readily with bond-dissociation energy. This sequence on sensitive study aimed at the thermal hazard evaluation for
the reactive and incompatible characteristics of CHP mixed with various inorganic alkaline solutions. Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) were used to analyze the thermal hazards and runaway reaction of redox
system, such as decomposition of CHP in cumene solution and CHP react with inorganic alkaline solutions, exothermic onset
temperature, peak power, heat of decomposition of dynamic scanning tests, adiabatic self-heating rate, pressure rise rate,
maximum temperature, maximum pressure of reaction system, etc. The results of the tests have proven helpful in establishing
safe handling, storage, transportation, and disposal guidelines.
Authors:Y. Chang, J. Lee, J. Chen, H. Liaw and C. Shu
The flammability characteristics of chemical substances are very important for safety considerations in manufacturing processes.
This study investigated the mixing of toluene and methanol mixtures with five vapor mixing ratios (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75
and 0/100 vol.%) at initial conditions of 1 atm and 150°C, and determined the flammability properties to identify their potential
fire and explosion hazards. These safety-related parameters included lower explosion limit (LEL), upper explosion limit (UEL),
maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax) and rate of maximum explosion pressure rise ((dP/dt)max); all of them were measured by a 20-L-Apparatus.
In terms of flammability tests for this research, the experimental results indicated that when methanol was increased, which
could induce a higher range of flammability, afterwards the situation could be triggered to a dangerous level, such as fire
or explosion. Based on the above-mentioned, we could obtain a series of flammability properties and provide inherently safer
design in related industrial processes for preventing serious fire and explosion accidents.
Authors:H. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Park, J. Lee and J. Choi
This study aimed to develop a chromatographic method to quantitatively determine phenol in fish tissues. This method involves solvent extraction of acidified samples, followed by derivatization to phenyl acetate and analysis with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Phenol in a representative tissue sample (belly, gill, or renal tubules), which was homogenized with 2 N sulfuric acid, was extracted with ethyl acetate and derivatized to phenyl acetate using acetic anhydride and K2CO3 in water. An n-butyl acetate extract was injected into the GC–MS. The linearity (r2) of the calibration curve was greater than 0.996. The analytical repeatability, which is expressed as the relative standard deviation, was less than 6.14%, and the recovery was greater than 96.3%. The method detection limit and the limit of quantitation were 8.0 μg/kg and 26 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method is also applicable to the analysis of other biological tissues for phenol and its analogs, such as pentachlorophenol.
Radioaactive samples in cylindrical beakers have been measured using a high purity Ge spectrometer. Self-attenuation effects at various densities of the radioactive samples filled in cylindrical beakers were studied by experimenal and theoretical methods. Coincidence summing effects for specific nuclides were also determined from the measurements of full-energy peak efficiencies in a given source-to-detector geometry.