A redox substoichiometry is proposed for an accurate and precise determination of arsenic. This method is based on the substoichiometric
oxidation of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent with potassium bromate or ceric sulfate followed by the separation of these
species by thionalide extraction of trivalent arsenic. It was applied to neutron activation analysis of arsenic in the NBS
SRM Orchard Leaves and the Shark Powder. The results were obtained with an excellent accuracy and precision.
High-energy protons and neutrons produce various radionuclides in the air, mainly through the nuclear spallation of atmospheric
elements. Air samples were collected from the EP-2 tunnel of the KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron facility with a filter pack,
which consisted of a membrane filter for aerosols, a Na2CO3-impregnated filter for acidic gases, and an activated carbon fiber filter for non-acidic gases. Sulfur-38 was found on the
membrane and Na2CO3-impregnated filters, 38Cl and 39Cl were on the membrane, Na2CO3-impregnated, and ACF filters, and 82Br was only on the ACF filter. The results on the relative abundances of aerosol and gaseous acidic components have indicated
that 38Cl produced by thermal neutron capture, which is the main reaction for 38Cl production in the EP-2 tunnel air, are likely not to be present as aerosol or acidic gas. This was similar to the case
of 82Br produced by thermal neutron capture.
Authors:Y. Kanda, Y. Oki, A. Endo, M. Numajiri, and K. Kondo
The irradiation of atmospheric air with high-energy protons has been performed at the 12 GeV proton synchrotron. The specific activity of 13N, one of the principal airborne radioactivities, was measured as a function of the irradiation time at a dose rate of about 6·1016 eV/g/s, and compared with the calculated values. The predominant chemical species of 13N produced were found to be 13N2and 13NO2. Their proportions were approximately 55% for 13N2 and 45% for13NO2, being almost independent of the irradiation time. Smaller quantities of 13NO and H13NO2 were also observed. Measurements of radiolytic products showed that ozone is a main product and that NO2predominates among the products of nitrogen compounds, including HNO2 and HNO3. The G-value for ozone formation in air was estimated from the experimental data as 6.4 molecules/100 eV.
Aerosol-size distributions of218Po were determined for the accelerator tunnel air sampled during machine operation and for the basement air of a concrete
building, where the number and the size distribution of non-radioactive aerosols are greatly different from each other. The218Po distributions depended very much on the size distributions of ambient non-radioactive aerosols, and could be well explained
by an attachment model of218Po to ambient non-radioactive aerosols.
Authors:A. Endo, K. Sato, H. Noguchi, Su. Tanaka, T. Iida, S. Furuichi, Y. Kanda, and Y. Oki
The size distributions of 38Cl, 39Cl, 82Br and 84Br aerosols generated by irradiations of argon and krypton gases containing di-octyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols with 45 MeV and 65 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were measured in order to study the formation mechanism of radioactive particles in high energy radiation fields. The effects of the size distribution of the radioactive aerosols on the size of the added DOP aerosols, the energy of the neutrons and the kinds of nuclides were studied. The observed size distributions of the radioactive particles were explained by attachment of the radioactive atoms generated by the neutron-induced reactions to the DOP aerosols.