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  • Author or Editor: Y. Kikawada x
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Abstract  

The concentrations of As(III) and As(V) in natural hot spring and river waters collected in the Kusatsu-Shirane volcano area, Gunma, Japan, were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) preceded by the pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDC) coprecipitation. The PDC coprecipitation technique using Pb(PDC)2 as a collector of As(III) was applicable to the determination of As(III) at μg/L to mg/L levels. It was found important that the sufficient amount of PDC must be added to sample waters to accomplish the quantitative coprecipitation of As(III), taking the amounts of coexisting metal ions into consideration.

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Abstract  

Concentrations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in hot spring waters have been determined by neutron activation analysis using 0.5 cm3 of sample waters without any chemical pretreatment. The samples prepared for neutron irradiation were simply pieces of filter papers which were infiltrated with samples. With the results of satisfactorily high accuracy and precision, this analytical method was found to be very convenient for the determinations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in water at ppm to sub-ppm levels.

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Abstract  

The contents of arsenic in soils collected in the Kusatsu hot spring area, Gunma, Japan, were determined by INAA, with the average content of 36 mg/kg, which was obviously higher than that reported for the Japanese crust. The remarkably high contents of arsenic, 170 and 130 mg/kg, were observed in the soils collected near the discharge point of the surplus hot spring water. The distribution of arsenic in the ground suggests that arsenic originated from hot springs has been diffusing into the ground accompanying the penetration of the hot spring water.

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Abstract  

A total of 19 elements in the samples of atmospheric deposition collected in Kawasaki, Japan, were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICPAES and flame photometry. The amounts of soil dust depositions were larger in springs and those of Sb and Zn depositions were larger in summers than in the other seasons. The values of the enrichment factors were higher for Sb and Zn than for the other elements determined throughout the sampling period. A factor analysis showed that the two elements were characterized as industrial components. Rubber products like tires that contain noncombustibles and rubber accelerators were a possible origin of high concentrations of Sb and Zn in the present samples.

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Abstract  

Concentration of lanthanides (Lns) in alunite group mineral samples from the Kusatsu-Shirane volcano area, Gunma, Japan, were determined by neutron activation analysis. Their Ln abundance patterns showed enrichment of light Lns relative to their original rocks and GSJ geochemical reference samples of feldspars. It was found that the concentration of light Lns increased with increasing concentration of K and P. The positive correlation between the light Lns and P concentration suggested the formation of florencite, whereas the positive correlation between the concentration of light Lns and K may reflect the difference between the solubility of double salts of K and Ln sulfates of light Lns and heavy Lns, respectively.

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Abstract  

Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) of rock salts have been measured by neutron activation analysis. Original salt samples were treated in advance of neutron irradiation so that Ln's were enriched and amounts of interfering nuclides were reduced. The contents of Ln's were at ppt-sub ppb levels and were comparable with or slightly lower than those of solar salts. The Ln abundance patterns of the salts were those with relative depletion in the heavy Ln's, thus having negative slopes. It was indicated that, when salt deposit was formed, Ln's were taken up by anhydrite more preferentially than by halite.

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Abstract  

Determination of the lanthanoids, thorium and uranium in silicate rocks has been investigated by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Seven or eight lanthanoids and thorium and uranium were determined by non-destructive instrumental NAA. The numbers of the lanthanoids determined were increased and errors on the final values were reduced by pre-irradiation treatments, which included a coprecipitation process with aluminium as collector to remove the alkali metals and halogens and a solvent extraction process to eliminate iron. The necessity of scandium removal was indicated.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis was successfully applied to the determination of Th and U at ppt levels in a neutral hot spring water. Blank test corrections were found to be essential to reach the final determined values. Normal NAA is a better method for the Th determination than epithermal NAA, while both NAAs are nearly equally effective for U determination.

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Abstract  

Determination of the lanthanoids in a neutral hot spring water has been studied by menas of neutron activation analysis. The aluminium coprecipitation process, which used aluminium as the collector of the lanthanoids, was incorporated in the preparation of a sample for irradiation. Nine lanthanoids, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Tm, Yb and Lu, were determined at ppt levels with satisfactory precision, indicating the effectiveness of aluminium coprecipitation.

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Abstract  

A brine sample and two deposit samples of a salt lake in China were analyzed for their contents of lanthanoids (Ln's), thorium and uranium by neutron activation analysis. Five Ln's were determined at sub ppb levels. Th and U contents were at about the same levels as those of Ln's. The lanthanoid abundance patterns (Ln pattern) of the three samples are similar to each other, each having a negative slope in the light Ln region. There seems no substantial difference in distribution between the solution (brine) and solid (deposit) phases among Ln's.

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