Weak atomic decompositions of B-valued martingales with two-parameters in weak Hardy spaces wpΣα and wpHα are established and the boundedness of sublinear operators on these spaces are proved. By using them, some characterizations
of the smoothness of Banach spaces are obtained.
Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of polyaniline (PANI)/ZrO2 composite and PANI was reported in our early work. In this present, the kinetic analysis of decomposition process for these
two materials was performed under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energies were calculated through Friedman and
Ozawa-Flynn-Wall methods, and the possible kinetic model functions have been estimated through the multiple linear regression
method. The results show that the kinetic models for the decomposition process of PANI/ZrO2 composite and PANI are all D3, and the corresponding function is ƒ(α)=1.5(1−α)2/3[1−(1-α)1/3]−1. The correlated kinetic parameters are Ea=112.7±9.2 kJ mol−1, lnA=13.9 and Ea=81.8±5.6 kJ mol−1, lnA=8.8 for PANI/ZrO2 composite and PANI, respectively.
In order to enrich the thermokinetic research methods and enlarge the applicable range of the thermokinetic time-parameter
method, the integral and differential thermokinetic equations of consecutive first-order reaction have been deduced, and the
mathematical models of the time-parameter method for consecutive first-order reactions have been proposed in this paper. The
rate constants of two steps can be calculated from the same thermoanalytical curve measured in a batch conduction calorimeter
simultaneously with this method. The thermokinetics of saponifications of diester in aqueoushanol solvent has been studied.
The experimental results indicate that the time-parameter method for the consecutive first-order reaction is correct.
The phenomenon of all-elements-sleeping-beauties in science is revealed by four special cases. The ‘sleeping beauties’ prick their fingers on the ‘spindles’ so that they fall into sleep then are awakened by their ‘princes’. The authors speculate that the phenomenon could happen in scientific literatures with high quality.
Authors:Y. Uchiyama, K. Ito, H. Li, Y. Ujihara and Y. Jean
The variations of size, intensity, and size distribution of free volumes generated in the network of molecular chains of gelatin at the sol-gel transition were studied by means of the positron annihilation lifetime technique. Although variation in average free-volume radius was not recognized, a variation of free-volume content was observed at the sol-gel transition point of gelatin with an addition of saccharose.
Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis
diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results
show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83
to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference
between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.
Single aerosol particles were analyzed in the ambient air of the center of Shanghai by scanning proton microprobe to obtain characteristic X-ray spectra (micro-PIXE) which were considered to be the fingerprints of these aerosol particles. The origin of the lead-containing particles was identified by the combination of the micro-PIXE spectra with pattern recognition technique. It was found that the most of the lead-containing particles were derived from vehicle exhaust, coal combustion and soil dust.
A detail study of distribution, host range, and seasonal pattern of western flower thrips (WFT),
(Pergande), in Yunnan Province was conducted in 2004–2006. The pest is distributed throughout the province and was found in 22 out of 25 widely spaced locations surveyed. WFT was found feeding on 45 species of vegetables, ornamentals, and weeds in the province. Seasonal pattern of WFT on vegetables planted in open field and inside greenhouses was similar and, with exception of minor local differences, did not differ from information generated elsewhere. These findings may provide some useful data for the management of this and possibly other thrips pests in Yunnan.
Differences of size, content and size distribution of free volumes in linear branched and three-armed polystyrenes, synthesized by radical and anionic processes, were observed by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. The temperature dependence of an average free volume radius was quite similar among polystyrenes of different architectures and molecular weight distributions. The free volume radius increased with temperature, from 0.27 nm (T:60 K) to 0.29 nm (T:260 K) and 0.30 nm (Tg:363 K), then to 0.35 nm (423 K), showing turning at and transition temperature. The free volume content decreased from 60 K to 220 K to 300 K showing peculiar minimum at 220 K to 300 K depending on the molecular shape, increased above 320 K, upto 340 to 360 K. The free volume contents decreased with an increase of molecular weight and by an addition of oligomer or plasticiser, suggesting differences in relaxation time or molecular motion between the edge and middle portions of molecular chain and filling effect of smaller molecules in free volumes, respectively. The apparent free volume fraction showed clear variations atT andTg. Size distribution of free volumes suggested more complicated behavior of free volume upon the molecular relaxations and filling effect.