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  • Author or Editor: Y. Okamoto x
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Béla Bartók’s “On Hungarian Music,” one of his controversial articles published in 1911, is known for criticizing Géza Molnár’s book, Theory of Hungarian Music (1904). However, it has not been mentioned that Molnár himself replied to Bartók’s article in the next volume of Aurora [Dawn] magazine, using exactly the same title as Bartók’s. While Bartók asserted that true Hungarian music had never existed before, Molnár, a musicologist in Budapest, bitterly criticized Bartók’s assertions from an academic perspective. This controversy over Hungarian music published in Aurora seemed quite crucial for understanding and relativizing Bartók’s position at that time. The historian Mary Gluck explained that several intellectuals, including György Lukács and Béla Balázs, had to depend on the older generation, both financially and philosophically, during that period. Using Gluck’s framework, this paper examines the genesis of Bartók’s article and the connection between him and the intellectuals in 1911, as well as to interpret this controversy. In conclusion, the controversy with Molnár, and plausible “defeat” in the field of musicology could be added to his list of challenges and setbacks before 1912, the year that saw Bartók’s temporal exit from public musical life.

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Isothermal titration microcalorimetry has been applied to investigate the compatibility testing of risperidone oral solution with soft-drinks and the interaction with tea tannin such as (–)-epigallocatechin, (–)-epicatechin, theaflavin and their gallates. In aqueous solution, risperidone was exothermically bound to tea tannin with binding affinity (103–104 M–1), small enthalpy and entropy changes reflecting van der Waal’s interaction to form an insoluble complex at 1:1 molar ratio. The heat effect of risperidone titrated into soft-drinks containing tannin was exothermic and proportional to the quantity of the complex. While, no significant heat effect was found for risperidone titrated into a pet-bottled water and an infusion of parched barley without tea tannin. These results were agreed with stability testing of risperidone in some soft-drinks by HPLC method.

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An apparatus was designed and constructed for investigation of the tritium release rate from neutron-irradiated materials for fusion reactors. The design principles, as well as safe handling of tritium and complete trapping of tritium components released, are described and the tritium release rates obtained with this apparatus are discussed for sintered lithium fluoride pellets.

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We examined whether the enteric nervous system (ENS) is capable of controlling autonomous peristalsis, which occurs in the crop of Aplysia as well as in the esophagus of Lymnaea. Interestingly, “pacemaker neurons”, which lead peristaltic rhythm, were found in the gizzard in Aplysia and in the crop in Lymnaea; both of these structures are located distal to the regions exhibiting peristalsis. Thus, the bursting activity of the ENS first occurred in lower regions and then progressed in an ascending direction (i.e. in the opposite direction of peristalsis). The two species are thought to differ in terms of the mechanisms involved in producing peristalsis.

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The interactions of benzalkonium chloride (BC)with components of stratum corneum, a model system of intercellular lipids in human stratum corneum and homogenized rat stratum corneum were characterized in terms of thermodynamics at pH 7.5 and 37C. BC was strongly bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with higher affinities (105~106 M-1) than to any other components of the stratum corneum by hydrophobic interaction and ionic interaction, respectively. BC binding to the model system of intercellular lipids significantly decreased only in the absence of cholesterol. It is indicated that cholesterol and its derivatives play an important role in the penetration and/or accumulation of BC in stratum corneum.

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A new system of γ-ray spectrometry has been designed and constructed. This system performs a precise, quick and automatic activation analysis using our nuclear reactor (TRIGA-II Research Reactor) as a neutron source. The main components are detector system consisted of a high resolution Ge(Li) detector settled in a shielding cabinet and a well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation counter for anti-Compton measurement, and data acquisition and spectra analysis system performed independently by two mini computer. The system has operated for atmospheric aerosols as an example of activation analysis.

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Positron annihilation lifetimes were measured for several polymers in the atmosphere of high pressure CO2 gas. At low CO2 pressured both 3 andI 3 decreased due to the Langmuir-type sorption, and at higher pressures their values recovered because the Henry-type sorption takes over. The amount of sorbed CO2 and dilation of the bulk volume were measured simultaneously, and the free volume fraction was determined at each CO2 pressure. The free volume fraction became smaller (for polyimide and polycarbonate) or slightly larger (for polyethylene) with the progress of sorption. However, the size of the o-Ps hole estimated from the 3 value increased regardless of the change of the free volume fraction. It appears that o-Ps is selectively looking at larger holes or expanding the holes in which it is accommodated. For polycarbonate, which remains to be glassy even at the largest CO2 sorption attained in the experiment, the o-Ps hole size became larger than that before sorption. This implies that, even if the polymer is glassy as bulk, the sorption site is strongly prone to molecular displacement by the pressure of the penetrating Ps. Cautious consideration is evoked about directly correlating the o-Ps lifetime and intensity with the free volume in general.

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fac(S)-[Rh(aet)3] (aet = 2-aminoethanethiolate) is N3S3 metalloligand which can coordinate to transition metal ions to form S-bridge polynuclear complexes. The reaction was carried out between 99mTcO4Na and fac(S)-[Rh(aet)3] in the presence of SnCl2·2H2O. A complex analogous to [Re{Rh(aet3)}2]3+ is formed.6 A simple method for radiolabeling of fac(S)-[Rh(aet)3] with 99mTc has been developed and radiolabeling efficiency was higher than 99%. Effect of SnCl2·2H2O concentration, electrophoresis, HPLC, UV-Visible absorption spectra and biodistribution studies in rats were performed. Higher uptake by kidneys showed rapid distributions of the labeled fac(S)-[Rh(aet)3]. Liver uptake was significant, stomach, lungs and intestine uptake was high at 4 hours post injection time.

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We investigated the effects of resistance exercise combined with essential amino acid supplementation on psoas major muscle (PMM) hypertrophy and walking ability in elderly individuals. Twenty-nine healthy elderly individuals were assigned to 3 groups: (1) E (exercise), (2) A3 (exercise combined with 3.0 g of essential amino acid supplementation), and (3) A6 (exercise combined with 6.0 g of essential amino acid supplementation). To evaluate walking ability, the participants underwent the following 3 types of tests: the (1) 10-meter walk (10-W), (2) 10-meter walk involving crossing of obstacles (10-W + O), and (3) 6-minute walk (6M-W) tests. The 6-month training program resulted in significant PMM hypertrophy in all groups independent of amino acid supplementation. The extent of hypertrophy in the participants who took amino acids was dose-dependent, although the differences were not significant. Groups A3 and A6 demonstrated improvements in the 10-W and 10-W + O tests, whereas no improvement was observed in group E, regardless of PMM hypertrophy. Furthermore, group A6 showed an improvement in the 6M-W test. These results suggest that our training program causes PMM hypertrophy, whereas the training program combined with essential amino acid supplementation improves walking ability.

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