Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of polyaniline (PANI)/ZrO2 composite and PANI was reported in our early work. In this present, the kinetic analysis of decomposition process for these
two materials was performed under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energies were calculated through Friedman and
Ozawa-Flynn-Wall methods, and the possible kinetic model functions have been estimated through the multiple linear regression
method. The results show that the kinetic models for the decomposition process of PANI/ZrO2 composite and PANI are all D3, and the corresponding function is ƒ(α)=1.5(1−α)2/3[1−(1-α)1/3]−1. The correlated kinetic parameters are Ea=112.7±9.2 kJ mol−1, lnA=13.9 and Ea=81.8±5.6 kJ mol−1, lnA=8.8 for PANI/ZrO2 composite and PANI, respectively.
N,N,N',N'-Tetrabutyladipicamide (TBAA) was used for the extraction of nitric acid and uranyl(II) ion from nitric acid media
into toluene. The effects of nitric acid, uranyl(II) ion, and extractant concentration, temperature and back extraction on
the distribution coefficient of uranyl(II) ion have been studied. The main adduct of TBAA and HNO3 is TBAA·HNO3 in 1.0 mol/l nitric acid solution. The 1:2:2 complex of uranyl(II) ion, nitrate ion and TBAA as extracted species is further
confirmed by IR spectra of the extraction of uranyl(II) ion with TBAA. The values of the thermodynamic parameters have also
Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis
diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results
show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83
to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference
between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.
A novel AB2-type monomer diethyl 5-(4-hydroxyethoxyphenylazo)isophthalate for preparing hyperbranched azo polymers (HBPAZO) was synthesized.
The monomer obtained was characterized by IR spectra, UV–Vis spectra, 1H NMR spectrum and C NMR spectrum. The TG-DTG/DTA curves show that the decomposition of the monomer proceeds in four steps.
During the second-step decomposition, the mass loss occurs between 480.5 K and 579.0 K and the phenomena of condensing to
HBPAZO for the melted monomer was found. So it is inferred that this temperature range is the best for polycondensation of
the melted monomer, which is very important for synthesizing of HBPAZO.
The molar heat capacity Cp,m of 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride was measured in the temperature range from T=80 to 390 K with a small sample automated adiabatic calorimeter. The melting point Tm, the molar enthalpy ΔfusHm and the entropy ΔfusSm of fusion for the compound were determined to be 303.80 K, 14.71 kJ mol−1 and 48.43 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. The thermodynamic functions [HT-H273.15] and [ST-S273.15] were derived in the temperature range from T=80 to 385 K with temperature interval of 5 K. The thermal stability of the compound was investigated by differential scanning
calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), when the process of the mass-loss was due to the evaporation, instead of its
Conducting polyaniline/Cobaltosic oxide (PANI/Co3O4) composites were synthesized for the first time, by in situ deposition technique in the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl)
as a dopant by adding the fine grade powder (an average particle size of approximately 80 nm) of Co3O4 into the polymerization reaction mixture of aniline. The composites obtained were characterized by infrared spectra (IR)
and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition and the thermal stability of the composites were investigated by TG-DTG. The
results suggest that the thermal stability of the composites is higher than that of the pure PANI. The improvement in the
thermal stability for the composites is attributed to the interaction between PANI and nano-Co3O4.
Authors:B. Tong, Z. Tan, Q. Shi, Y. Li and S. Wang
The low-temperature heat capacity Cp,m of sorbitol was precisely measured in the temperature range from 80 to 390 K by means of a small sample automated adiabatic
calorimeter. A solid-liquid phase transition was found at T=369.157 K from the experimental Cp-T curve. The dependence of heat capacity on the temperature was fitted to the following polynomial equations with least square
method. In the temperature range of 80 to 355 K, Cp,m/J K−1 mol−1=170.17+157.75x+128.03x2-146.44x3-335.66x4+177.71x5+306.15x6, x= [(T/K)−217.5]/137.5. In the temperature range of 375 to 390 K, Cp,m/J K−1 mol−1=518.13+3.2819x, x=[(T/K)-382.5]/7.5. The molar enthalpy and entropy of this transition were determined to be 30.35±0.15 kJ mol−1 and 82.22±0.41 J K−1 mol−1 respectively. The thermodynamic functions [HT-H298.15] and [ST-S298.15], were derived from the heat capacity data in the temperature range of 80 to 390 K with an interval of 5 K. DSC and TG measurements
were performed to study the thermostability of the compound. The results were in agreement with those obtained from heat capacity
DSC and TG-DTA techniques were used to investigate micro-sized silver powder particles and the adsorption of ethyl cellulose
on these particles in a solution of ethyl acetate. The apparent specific heat of the silver particles was determined, and
the kinetics of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of these adsorbed silver particles was investigated. Results show
that the apparent specific heat and desorption kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis techniques could be used to
characterize certain physico-chemical properties of such a particulate system.
The molar heat capacities of the room temperature
ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF4)
were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter in temperature range from 80 to
390 K. The dependence of the molar heat capacity on temperature is given as
a function of the reduced temperature X
by polynomial equations, CP,m
(J K–1 mol–1)=
195.55+47.230 X–3.1533 X2+4.0733 X3+3.9126 X4 [X=(T–125.5)/45.5] for the solid phase (80~171
K), and CP,m (J
378.62+43.929 X+16.456 X2–4.6684 X3–5.5876 X4 [X=(T–285.5)/104.5] for the liquid phase (181~390
K), respectively. According to the polynomial equations and thermodynamic
relationship, the values of thermodynamic function of the BMIBF4
relative to 298.15 K were calculated in temperature range from 80 to 390 K
with an interval of 5 K. The glass translation of BMIBF4
was observed at 176.24 K. Using oxygen-bomb combustion calorimeter, the molar
enthalpy of combustion of BMIBF4 was determined to
– 5335±17 kJ mol–1. The standard
molar enthalpy of formation of BMIBF4 was evaluated
to be ΔfHmo=
–1221.8±4.0 kJ mol–1 at T=298.150±0.001 K.
Methylcellulose (MC) is a thermo-reversible physical hydrogel. This study investigates the thermodynamic characteristics of gelation mechanism for MC. The relative and absolute specific heat capacity values of the hydrogel system were modeled using an empirical formulation to facilitate calculation of thermodynamic parameters. Experiments verifying the assumptions for the model formulation were conducted and are discussed. Parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and changes in their magnitude as a function of temperature were calculated and their trends were studied. The implications of these observations on the various stages of the gel formation process and the associated mechanisms are evaluated. The studies revealed that the gelation of MC is a temperature- driven process rather than only driven by the heat input, and it attains a state of equilibrium under isothermal conditions. During gelation, the entropy of the overall (MC+water) system increases due to an increase in the disorderliness of the MC system.