Samples of archaic bronze have been investigated by fast neutron activation analysis using both the absolute and relative method. The components Cu, Zn, Sn and Pb have been determined quantitatively. For the detection of lead via the short-lived isomeric state207mPb, cyclic activation and measurement technique was used with pneumatic sample transfer between detector and central irradiation position of the neutron tube. For nondestructive analysis of antique Chinese coins the samples had to be irradiated outside the neutron generator KORONA. The activation reactions, the evaluation of the elemental concentrations and the accuracy of the results are discussed. The data were corrected for -ray self-absorption in the samples and summing of coincident -rays in the detector. According to reported typical compositions of Chinese bronze from different dynasties, the age of the samples has been derived from the results obtained.
Trifolium pratense cv. Minshan is a dominant red clover variety for animal feeding and pharmaceutical industry in Alpine Pasture Region of Gansu province, northwest China. In order to achieve the best isoflavone production, a 3-year trial was conducted at three locations to study variations of hay yield, total isoflavone concentration and isoflavone yield at different growth stages under different environmental conditions. Predominant isoflavone compounds and distribution of isoflavones in leaves, stems and inflorescences were also investigated. The results indicated that there were large variations on hay yield and isoflavone concentration among different sites, growth stages, age and parts of the plant. Minshan red clover harvested at the flower bud stage had the highest isoflavone yield (86.30 kg ha−1). The temperate climate region, Guanghe, provided the best growth conditions among three sites for isoflavone production (58.93 kg ha−1). The highest isoflavone production (53.42 kg ha−1) appeared at the second year of crop. In Minshan red clover, isoflavones are mainly distributed in leaves (1.12%). The predominant isoflavone compounds were formononetin (0.27%) and biochanin A (0.25%).
A total of 29 major and trace elements have been determined in 43 plant samples collected from the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau using INAA at a SLOWPOKE mini-reactor in order to study elemental background concentration values in Xizang plants. In this paper are reported elemental concentrations of different parts of the plants compared to average values of plants worldwide. The preliminary results suggest that nutritional, plant elements in this region are quite low indicative of a state of malnutrition, while the contents of Al, Ti, Cr and Ba are comparatively high. These findings indicate that the concentrations of most elements in the plants are mainly affected by local soil geochemical characteristics. Some variation in elemental distribution within the plants was also evident: in general, higher concentrations were found in stems compared to roots, and, differences for nutritional elements among the plant species were much greater than found for other elements.
A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analyzer with a special structure is described. Its short X-ray path (about 15 cm) resulted in a high sensitivity, low power consumption and small volume. The structure with double total reflection path is suitable for easy change of exciting source to cover a large element range. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of 6 pg for Co under Cu exciting source and 22 pg for Sr under Mo tube. Some significant works were done, such as the detemination of sulfur content in fuel oils, the non-destructive analysis of an ancient bronze utensil and the regular analysis of tap water.
Complexation of neptunium(V) with fluoride in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures was studied by spectrophotometry
and microcalorimetry. Two successive complexes, NpO2F(aq) and NpO2F2−, were identified by spectrophotometry in the temperature range of 10–70°C. Thermodynamic parameters, including the equilibrium
constants and enthalpy of complexation between Np(V) and fluoride at 10–70°C were determined. Results show that the complexation
of Np(V) with fluoride is endothermic and that the complexation is enhanced by the increase in temperature — a two-fold increase
in the stability constants of NpO2F(aq) and more than five-fold increase in the stability constants of NpO2F2− as the temperature is increased from 10 to 70°C.
Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive
materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/sulfate
complex and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 10–70°C.
Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is weak but slightly enhanced by the increase in temperature. The
complexation is endothermic and becomes more endothermic with the increase in temperature. The enhanced complexation at elevated
temperatures is due to the increasingly larger entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase in enthalpy, indicating that
the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is entropy-driven.
In this study, the thermal stability of sisal in cycle process was investigated between room temperatures and 600°C in various
conditions (in air, in composites, in argon) by thermogravimetry and mechanical testing measurement. The results indicated
that the thermal stability of sisal was worse in air before five times of thermal cycles, but after the five times thermal
stability of sisal in composites was better. In different conditions of same cycles process, the thermal stability of sisal
was different. With increasing of thermal cycles times, the max. load (is the maximum strength in stress-strain curve) of
sisal fiber showed downtendency in different conditions and decreased most obviously in composites.
The transformation equation for the thermokinetics of consecutive first-order reactions has been deduced, and a thermokinetic
research method of irreversible consecutive first-order reactions, which can be used to determine the rate constants of two
steps simultaneously, is proposed. The method was validated and its theoretical basis was verified by the experimental results.
Authors:Y. Shi, L. Sun, F. Tian, J. Venart, and R. Prasad
The transient hot-wire technique is widely used for absolute measurements of the thermal conductivity of fluids. Refinement
of this method has resulted in a capability for accurate and simultaneous measurement of both thermal conductivity and thermal
diffusivity together with a determination of the specific heat. However, these measurements, especially those for the thermal
diffusivity, may be significantly influenced by fluid radiation.
The present work investigates the effect of fluid radiation on the measurements of the thermal conductivity of propane. Recently
developed corrections have been used to examine this assumption and rectify the influence of even weak fluid radiation. Measurements
at 372 K with a hot-wire instrument demonstrate the presence of radiation effects in both the liquid and vapor phase. The
influence is much more pronounced in liquid propane at 15.5 MPa than in the vapor phase at 881.5 kPa. The technique employed
to obtain radiation-free thermal conductivity measurements is described.
Authors:Y. Wen, H. Liu, L. Tian, P. Han, and F. Luan
A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic procedure for analysis of matrine and oxymatrine in Kushen medicinal preparations has been developed and optimized. Orthogonal design was used to optimize the separation and detection conditions for the two active components. Phosphate concentration, applied potential, organic modifier content, and buffer pH were selected as variable conditions. The optimized background electrolyte contained 70 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 30% acetonitrile at pH 5.5; the separation potential was 20 kV. Each analysis was complete within 5 min. Regression equations revealed linear relationships (r > 0.999) between peak area and amount for each component. The detection limits were 1.29 μg mL−1 for matrine and 1.48 μg mL−1 for oxymatrine. The levels of the two active compounds in two kinds of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation were easily determined with recoveries of 96.57–106.26%. In addition, multiple linear regression and a non-linear model using a radial basis function neural network approach were constructed for prediction of the migration time of oxymatrine. The predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental values, indicating that a radial basis function neural network is a potential means of prediction of separation time in capillary electrophoresis.