Making a costly apology or inflicting self-punishment after an unintentional transgression can serve as a costly signal of the transgressor's benign intention. In the present research, after an unintentional transgression (i.e., unequal resource allocation between themselves and a partner), participants were provided with an opportunity to send an apology message to their partner (in Experiments 1 and 2) or to privately deduct some amount from their own reward (in Experiments 2 and 3). Across these experiments, approximately half of the participants indicated their willingness to incur some cost to produce these costly signals. In Experiment 1, neither history nor expectation of interaction with a partner altered the frequency of a costly apology. In Experiment 2, despite explicit instructions that their partner would not be informed whether they had inflicted the self-punishment, the frequency of self-punishment was approximately equal to that of a costly apology. These results suggest that the two types of costly signal were not solely directed at the victim. Experiment 3 revealed that these costly signallers endorsed the equality principle more than the non-signallers. This result is consistent with the idea that the two forms of costly signals serve to protect the signaller's reputation as a fair person.
Time resolved Mössbauer spectra were measured for57Co-labelled Co/IO3/2 using a delayed coincidence technique. A life-time for unstable57Fe(II)-species formed through EC-decay was estimated to be 43±5 ns at room temperature and the initial distribution of57Fe(II)/57Fe(III) at 14.4 keV nuclear level to be 0.47±0.13. The results are discussed in terms of electron transfer from the decayed57Fe(II) atoms to iodate ions.
Authors:Y. Ishikawa, K. Shoji, M. Takahashi, and T. Watanabe
Three types of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems for low-level radioactivity measurement were constructed in the laboratory near sea level. An anti-Compton system was set up by combining a large volume HPGe (rel. eff. 115%) with a well type NaI(Tl). The detection limit (D.L.) of 137Cs of an ashed oyster sample for the anti-Compton mode of 115% Ge was 0.023 Bq/sample for 8·104 s counting, whereas 0.035 Bq/sample for the normal mode. Under similar measuring conditions, D.L. of 137Cs for a medium volume HPGe (rel. eff. 51%) was 0.042 Bq/sample. A low-background Ge-LEPS (Low Energy Photon Spectrometer) was sufficiently sensitive for low level measurements of 210Pb, 234Th and other low energy gamma-emitters. The detection limit for 210Pb in the sample shape of 60 mm diameter by 2 mm thick was about 0.05 Bq/sample for 5.0·105 s background counting. Using this LEPS, it was found that 210Pb behaves similarly to 7Be in both air and precipitation (snowfall).
Authors:I. Satoh, T. Watanabe, Y. Ishii, M. Kawasaki, and H. Suganuma
The stability constants (b1) of the monofluoro complex of Cm(III) have been determined in mixed solvents of methanol and water using the solvent extraction technique. The values of lnb1 increase as the molar fraction of methanol (Xs) in the mixed solvent increases. The variation in the stability constants mainly depends on the solvation of F- and slightly depends on both (1) the solvation of cations in connection with the complexation of CmF2+ and (2) the electrostatic attraction of Cm3+-F-. The variation in lnb1 for Cm(III) due to the effect of both (1) and (2) is similar to that for Sm(III). By variation of lnb1 the coordination number in the primary hydration sphere (CN) of Cm(III) decreased from a value between CN = 9 and CN = 8 to CN = 8, at about Xs = 0.02. The Xs value of the inflection point of the CN for Cm is slightly lower than Xs = 0.06 for Sm(III) and Xs = 0.03 for Eu(III), previously obtained.
Authors:M. Tanaka, Y. Minai, T. Watanabe, and T. Tominaga
Phthalocyanineiron(II) (FePc) and phthalocyaninato[(2-)bispyridine]iron(II) (FePc(py)2) synthesized in supercage of NaY, KY and RbY zeolite have been characterized by Mössbauer and ESR spectroscopy. The yield of formation of the pyridine adduct depends on the ionic radius of the alkali ions introduced into the supercage, but not on the number of iron ions trapped in the cages, suggesting that free space in the supercage was the most important factor for the formation of the FePc-py-adducts.
Authors:M. Tanaka, Y. Minai, T. Watanabe, and T. Tominaga
Pyridine-treated phthalocyanineiron (II) (FePc) was synthesized in a NaY-zeolite supercage. Mössbauer spectra indicated the presence of pyridine-inactive FePc without any change of Mössbauer parameters. The relative yield of the inactive complex was not simply dependent on the amount of iron doped and the temperature during reduction for preparation. Spin-spin interaction may have broadened the ESR signal at g=6 for FePc in zeolite, suggesting that the FePc molecules are located close together in zeolite. It is postulated that two types of FePc in zeolite particle were formed, in accordance with the reactivity of FePc to pyridine adduct formation.
Authors:T. Kambara, J. Suzuki, H. Yoshioka, and Y. Watanabe
Radiometric titration of antimony(III) with potassium bromate in hydrochloric acid media using the standard series method
provided much valuable informations on the titration errors which depended on the concentrations of the acid and antimony(III).
The hydrochloric acid concentrations between 2.5 and 3.0M were found to be optimum for the oxidation of antimony(III) amounts
of 4 μg or less. Under these optimum reaction conditions the redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis was applied
to the determination of antimony in metallic zinc and the satisfactory results were obtained, without the separation of matrix
element. Also, the merits of various oxidizing agents hitherto studied for the quantitative oxidation of antimony(III) were
compared and discussed.
Authors:M. Watanabe, R. Tatsugae, K. Shirahashi, Y. Morita, and M. Kubota
The back-extraction of uranium(VI) from di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) was studied by using hydrazine carbonate as back-extractant. U(VI) was back-extracted from n-dodecane solutions of 0.5M HDEHP - 0.2M TBP and 0.5M DIDPA - 0.1M TBP by hydrazine carbonate. The distribution ratios were decreased with an increase of hydrazine carbonate concentration. The back-extraction equilibria were expressed by slope analysis in consideration of neutralization between the extractant (DIDPA, HDEHP) and hydrazine carbonate, which occurred quantitatively during the back-extraction.
Authors:M. Watanabe, R. Tatsugae, Y. Morita, and M. Kubota
Back-extraction of tri- and tetravalent actinides from diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) is studied using hydrazine carbonate as back-extractant. In experiments using 0.5M DIDPA–0.1M TBP n-dodecane solution, Am(III), Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(IV) are back-extracted, and the distribution ratios are decreased with an increase of hydrazine carbonate concentration. The back-extraction equilibria are confirmed by slope analysis in consideration of neutralization between DIDPA and hydrazine carbonate, which occurs quantitatively during back-extraction. In particular, oxidation of Np(IV) to Np(V) during back-extraction is observed by measuring absorption spectra. The hydrazinium ion acts as an oxidation reagent in the back-extraction of Np(IV). Separation factors of those metals are compared with the results of HDEHP. Hydrazine carbonate back-extracts Np(IV) more selectively from DIDPA than from HDEHP.
Authors:T. Tsuji, Y. Yamamura, H. Watanabe, K. Saito, and M. Sorai
The heat capacities and magnetic susceptibilities of powdered samples of FexNbS2 (x=0.14, 0.21 and 0.30) were measured at temperatures from 8 to 303 K and from 5 to 300 K, respectively. For Fe0.14NbS2, the magnetic susceptibility exhibited an anomaly as a shoulder at about 57 K, but no heat capacity anomaly was observed at this temperature, indicating the appearance of a spin-glass state. Anomalies in the heat capacity for FexNbS2 (x=0.21 and 0.30) occurred at 100.5 and 45.0 K, respectively, where the magnetic susceptibility displayed a maximum, corresponding to an antiferro-paramagnetic phase transition. The electronic state of the iron atom is discussed on the basis of entropy analysis.