An analytical method was developed for the measurement of low-level 54Mn in soil sample by ultra low-background g-ray spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The method consists of decomposition of sample by a mixture of HNO3 and HF, dissolution by HNO3, precipitation as hydroxide, solvent extraction with diisopropyl ether and anion exchange. Finally, for purification of Mn it was precipitated as MnO2 by adding KClO3. 54Mn in the precipitate was measured by ultra low-background well-type Ge detector at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. Measurements of 54Mn using 30-200 g of soil samples from the JCO grounds were successfully performed by the present method. The minimum detectable activity of 54Mn was about 0.01 dpm (0.2 mBq) for a 7-day counting period.
Mixed-valence μ-phenolate-bis(μ-carboxylate) diiron(II, III) complex [Fe2(bpmp)(ppa)2](BF4)2 (1) is prepared. The temperature dependence of the Mössbauer spectra of the complex 1 is measured. The Mössbauer parameters of the complex 1 show the unusual increase of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting with an increase in temperature. The spectra are explained
by the dynamic electronic states in which the valence states of two iron atoms in a molecule are 2.2 and 2.8 on the Mössbauer
time scale at 293 K. The single crystal X-ray structure of the complex 1 is determined at 133 K. The complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group
Authors:Y. Ohtsuka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Takaku, S. Hisamatsu, and J. Inaba
rapid method was developed using ultrafilters with a tangential flow filtering
system for molecular size separation of naturally occurring 210Pb
and 210Po in a freshwater sample. Generally, ultrafiltering of a
large volume water sample for measuring the nuclides was too time consuming and
not practical. The tangential flow filtering system made the filtering time
short enough to adapt for in-situ ultrafiltering the large volume sample. In this
method, a 20 liter water sample was at first passed through the 0.45mm pore size
membrane filter immediately after sample collection to obtain suspended
particle matter [>0.45mm particulate fraction (PRT)]. Two ultrafilters (Millipore
were used sequentially. The nuclides in the filtrate were separated into three
fractions: high molecular mass (100 kDa-0.45mm; HMM), low molecular mass (10 k-100 kDa;
LMM) and ionic (<10 kDa; INC) fractions. It took 80 minutes to process the
sample after collection. The cut-off molecular size of each ultrafilter was
confirmed by size exclusion chromatographs (SEC) of the LMN and the HMM
fractions. Adsorption of the nuclides and organic compounds in the sample onto
the ultrafilters was negligibly small. Good reproducibility of the nuclide
concentrations in each fraction was confirmed by repeated experiments. The
method was successfully applied to obtaine the molecular size distributions of 210Pb
and 210Po in an oligotrophic lake, Lake Towada located in the northern
area of Japan.
Authors:T. Hashimoto, M. Noguchi, H. Washio, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Uezu
A delayed coincidence method has been developed for the selective extraction of radionuclides with half-lives of millisecond order using a personal computer. The time interval analysis is fundamentally based on the distinction of the time interval distribution between the correlated and random events, which arise from radioactive disintegration and/or background events within a certain fixed time. Theoretical functions of a time spectrum or a time distribution curve were dealt with from aspects of statistical treatments consisting of a single time interval analysis and a multiple one (STA and MTA). The theoretical equations obtained were used to simulate time spectra on the assumption of some ideal data and compared with the experimental results. Conclusively, the MTA method has been verified to be more suitable for the selective extraction of the objective correlated events from random or background events for the search of radioactive nuclides with millisecond life-times.
Authors:K. Shiraishi, T. Ban-nai, Y. Muramatsu, and M. Yamamoto
Dietary intakes of radiocesium and non-radioactive cesium in Japanese were estimated using a market basket study and found
to be 61 mBq and 9.1 ng per person per day, respectively. Food categories having higher Cs contents (per g-fresh) were found
to be as follows: mushrooms 35.9 ng; nuts and seeds 33.6 ng; meats 26.8 ng; fishes and shellfishes 21.6 ng; potatoes 19.2
ng; seaweeds 10.2 ng; and milk and milk products 7.19 ng. For137Cs, higher contents (per kg-fresh) were as follows: mushrooms 1.7 Bq; nuts and seeds 0.23 Bq; fishes and shellfishes 0.16
Bq; meats 0.13 Bq; potatoes 0.11 Bq; seaweeds 0.092 Bq; and milk and milk products 0.089 Bq. Distributions of stable cesium
in the 18 food categories were similar to those of radiocesium.
Authors:M. Diksic, S. Farrokhzad, Y. Yamamoto, and W. Feindel
This paper decribes syntheses for the11C-labelled chemotherapeutic drug, CCNU,11C-labelled BFNU and CFNU (analogs of BCNU) as well as an improved synthesis for11C-BCNU. Also discussed are procedures for the separation of dual isomers in the case of11C-labelled CCNU and CFNU. The specific activity of these no-carrier-added radiopharmaceuticals was approximately 104 lower than expected for a carrier-free product. The syntheses were normally finished 20–25 min after the end of the collection of11C-COCl2. Chemical and radiochemical purity of the final product, as determined by HPLC and TLRC respectively, was at least 98%. The syntheses yielded 10–25 mCi of nitrosourea ready for use in PET studies.
Authors:Y. Murata, T. Muroyama, T. Imanaka, M. Yamamoto, and K. Komura
To estimate fast neutron fluence released by the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura, 54Mn, which is produced by the 54Fe(n,p)54Mn reaction, was determined in soil samples by ultra low background g-ray spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Activities of 54Mn, using 30-200 g soil samples were detected in soil samples from 13 points in all directions within a 20 m zone from the precipitation vessel we have used. The levels of 54Mn ranged from 0.015 to 2.12 mBq/g soil. By using these data and MCNP, the fast neutron fluences were estimated.
Authors:H. Aki, T. Niiya, Y. Iwase, and M. Yamamoto
Two different types (structures) of inclusion complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry between barbiturates and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
(HPCyD) were realized in aqueous solution using isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation. The first
type of complex with a higher association constant was entropy driven and the substituent R2 was inserted into the HPCyD cavity by hydrophobic interaction. The barbituric acid ring contributed to the second type of
complex, which was characterized by large negative values of ΔH and small positive ΔS reflecting van der Waals interaction and/or hydrogen bonding formation between the hetero atoms in the barbituric acid ring
and the secondary hydroxyl groups of HPCyD.
Authors:H. Aki, E. Koizumi, Y. Okamoto, and M. Yamamoto
The interactions of benzalkonium chloride (BC)with components of stratum corneum, a model system of intercellular lipids in
human stratum corneum and homogenized rat stratum corneum were characterized in terms of thermodynamics at pH 7.5 and 37C.
BC was strongly bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with higher affinities (105~106 M-1) than to any other components of the stratum corneum by hydrophobic interaction and ionic interaction, respectively. BC binding
to the model system of intercellular lipids significantly decreased only in the absence of cholesterol. It is indicated that
cholesterol and its derivatives play an important role in the penetration and/or accumulation of BC in stratum corneum.
Authors:C. Li, Y. Yamamoto, M. Suzuki, D. Hirabayashi, and K. Suzuki
TG and DTA experiments were performed to investigate the biomass tar combustion behavior in coexistence of dolomite and mayenite
at two different heating rates as 5 and 15°C min−1. Different reaction kinetic mechanisms with the classical Arrhenius model were used to treat TG data, and showed that the
first-order combustion model fitted the data well. Three stages combustion model was proposed and applied for the calculation
of kinetics parameters successfully. The starting temperature of high temperature combustion stage moved up near 100°C because
of the coexistence catalysts, and the combustion amount of biomass of the stage also improved nearly 10 mass%. By calculation
a uniform trend of decreasing activation energies was observed with the addition of dolomite and mayenite, and also greatly
improved the amount and speed of tar combustion process.