The thermal degradation mechanisms of random copolymers of methacrylonitrile (MAN) and styrene (St) have been investigated
by pyrolysis gas chromatography in the temperature range of 358 to 920‡C using a Curie point pyrolyzer (JHP-2) and comparing
results with the results from TG/DTA-FTIR apparatus (SII-6200, JASCO-320). The amount of St monomer from decomposition of
the copolymer is higher than that from P(St) alone; whilst that of MAN monomer from copolymer is lower than that from P(MAN).
This phenomenon reflects the boundary effect in the pyrolysis of copolymer. The thermal degradation mechanisms of copolymers
are discussed in terms of the competition between the depolymerization and the back biting reaction on the basis of bond dissociation
energies of C-C and C-H bonds in the copolymer chain.
The analysis of cantharidin, a potent antitumor yet highly toxic chemical, is reported in this article. In regions including the United States, Europe, and China, cantharidin is either a banned ingredient or being highly regulated in cosmetic products. In this article, a gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) method has been established for the determination of cantharidin in cosmetic products. Cosmetic samples were divided into two groups according to whether they contained aqueous ethanol or not. Samples containing aqueous ethanol in the formulation were dried under an air flow prior to extraction by methanol. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the parent ion at m/z 128 and the product ions at m/z 55 and 85 was employed. The linear range covered from 0.1 to 30.00 μg mL−1 (R = 0.9996) for cantharidin. The detection limit (LOD) was 0.3 μg kg−1. The intraday and between-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <8.7%. The mean recoveries were within the range 101.5–110.5%. The developed GC-MS/MS method was applied on 12 commercial cosmetic product samples, and is shown to be simple and sensitive and can be used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cantharidin in cosmetic products.
With pulse decay discrimination function and using diisopropylnaphthalene based scintilation cocktail, liquid scintillation analysis (LSA) becomes a rapid and reliable method for monitoring emitting nuclides in environmental samples. Recent developments of instrumentation and cocktail of LSA are described. Procedures and results of monitoring gross activity in vegetable samples and plutonium in soil samples are given. The Minimum Detectable Activity was 4.5×10–2 Bq/Kg for vegetable samples and was 6.6×10–5 Bq/g for soil samples.
Simple, rapid and sensitive methods are very important for the bioassay of plutonium. In this work, modern liquid scintillation technique combined with selective extraction separation and / pulse decay discrimination were studied and evaluated for the bioassay of plutonium. After sample decomposition and partial evaporation, cyclohexanone and trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) were used for the separation of plutonium from matrix. Several different cocktails were tested for liquid scintillation analysis of urine samples. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of this method was estimated to be 0.01 Bq/500ml urine with 100 minutes measuring time and 3 confident level.
New solid complex of nitrilotriacetic acid and bismuth trichloride was synthesized by a solid phase reaction of nitrilotriacetic
acid and bismuth trichloride at room temperature. The composition of the sample is BiCl3[N(CH2COOH)3]2.5. The crystal structure of the complex belongs to triclinic system with the lattice parameters: α=0.7849 nm, β=0.9821 nm,
χ=2.0021 nm, α=96.50, β=98.76 and γ=90.49. The far-infrared spectra show the bonding between the Bi ion and N atom of nitrilotriacetic
acid. The thermal analysis also demonstrates the complex formation between the bismuth ion and nitrilotriacetic acid. The
gaseous pyrolysis product and the final residue in the thermal decomposition process are determined to check the thermal decomposition
Authors:Ping Gong, Y. Yang, Y. Yang, Yan Feng, S. Li, Xiu Peng, and Y. Gong
New technologies in gene transfer combined with experimental embryology make the chicken embryo an excellent model system for gene function studies. The techniques of in ovo electroporation, in vitro culture for ex ovo electroporation and retrovirus-mediated gene transfer have already been fully developed in chicken. Yet to our knowledge, there are no definite descriptions on the features and application scopes of these techniques. The survival rates of different in vitro culture methods were compared and the EGFP expression areas of different gene transfer techniques were explored. It was that the optimal timings of removing embryo for EC culture and Petri dish system was at E1.5 and E2.5, respectively; and optimal timing of injecting retrovirus is at E0. Results indicated that the EC culture, in ovo electroporation, the Petri dish system and retrovirus-mediated method are, respectively, suitable for the very early, early, late and whole embryonic stages in chicken. Comparison of different gene transfer methods and establishment of optimal timings are expected to provide a better choice of the efficient method for a particular experiment.
Method for the isolation and radioactive cobalt /including58Co and60Co/ from a large volume of seawater and concentration in a small volume of chloroform as tris/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamato/cobalt/III/, Co/PDC/3, is described. The seawater was extracted first with Bi/PDC/3 in chloroform for removing parts of foreign metals like Hg, Ag, etc., and then added with ammonium pyrrolidindithiocarbamate, APDC, to complex with Co and possibly other ions and extracted into the organic phase. The final separation of Co from foreign ions in the organic phase was achieved by stripping with a Bi/III/ solution. The overall recovery of radiocobalt activity was found to be about 96%. The established method can be applicable for rapid and reliable determination of radiocobalt in seawater and other aqueous systems for environmental contamination.
Solvent extraction of uranyl nitrate in nitric acid medium with the binary system of DMHMP and DOSO has been investigated. It was found that synergistic effect occurs during the extraction of uranyl nitrate with benzene solution of DMHMP and DOSO, the binary species extracted UO2 (NO3)2·DMHMP·DOSO has been confirmed. From the data the equilibrium constants have been determined.
The distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in the intermediate layer (400–2000 m) of the northwestern North Pacific were determined to elucidate the export flux of
particulate matter. 210Po generally showed depletion relative to 210Pb in the intermediate layer, suggesting that 210Po was scavenged by particles. Because the removal rate constants of 210Po in the western region were higher than those in the eastern region and this trend coincided with that of the particle fluxes
in the surface layer, the export production in the surface layer was assumed to influence the particle flux in the intermediate
layer of the northwestern North Pacific.