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Abstract  

We investigate the chromatic number of infinite graphs whose definition is motivated by the theorem of Engelking and Karłowicz (in [?]). In these graphs, the vertices are subsets of an ordinal, and two subsets X and Y are connected iff for some aXY the order-type of aX is different from that of aY. In addition to the chromatic number x(G) of these graphs we study χ κ (G), the κ-chromatic number, which is the least cardinal µ with a decomposition of the vertices into µ classes none of which contains a κ-complete subgraph.

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Abstract  

The enthalpies of dilution, Δdil H m, have been measured for LiCl+Li2B4O7+H2O system at T=298.15 K by using a RD496-III microcalorimeter. A suitable measurement method was used to obtain the better data of the enthalpies of dilution for the ternary mixing solutions to low concentrations. The relative apparent molar enthalpies, L ϕ, have been determined and the relationships between L ϕ and ionic strength I at different molal fractions of Li2B4O7 were obtained. The effect of the borate Li2B4O7 on the heat properties for the studied system was discussed.

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Fusarium head blight disease (FHB) in wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex), is a very serious disease threatening wheat production worldwide. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods have been established for rapid and quantitative detection of many plant pathogens. In this study, a specific pair of primers was designed based on the sequence of DNA fragment (740 bp) amplified by a microsatellite primer M13 from Fg complex isolates. This pair of primers was able to amplify a 380 bp fragment from all Fg complex isolates but not from any other tested fungal species. Using this pair of primers, a real-time PCR assay was developed to quantitatively detect small amounts of Fg complex in wheat seeds. This sensitive and quantitative detection assay could be useful in epidemiological studies and assessment of mycotoxin contamination in wheat seeds.

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Abstract  

Radioiodination of tri-n-butylstannyl-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (TQNB) and N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (STB) was studied. STB was radiolabeled efficiently using iodogen to prepare radioactive N-succinimidyl-3- iodobenzoate (S125IB). TQNB was radioiodinated using Chloramine-T to obtain radioactive iodo-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (125IQNB). Both S125IB and 125IQNB showed good stability at room temperature in the dark.

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Abstract  

A separation procedure of trace platinum from large amounts of mercury and other interfering elements is described. After irradiation, the HgO target was dissolved in concentrated HCl solution. The thallium fraction was removed by solvent extraction with ether. In the aqueous phase after extraction the radioisotope of platinum produced by irradiation was precipitated as (NH4)2PtCl6 by adding a saturated solution of NH4Cl in the presence of H2PtCl6·6H2O as stable carrier. The decontamination factor of mercury, gold and thallium and the recovery of platinum in the process of separation are satisfactory.

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Novel magnetic solid-phase extraction using carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes was proposed with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of silodosin in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters including adsorbent amount, pH, adsorption time, desorption conditions, and adsorbent reusability were systematically validated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 1.0–800 ng mL−1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and the lower limit of detection was 0.3 ng mL−1. The extraction recoveries were over 90.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 5.0%. All these results suggested that magnetic extraction method can be used for enrichment and quantification of silodosin in biological samples.

Open access

Summary

A simple and rapid method, using online ultraperformance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-eλ-ESI-MS/MS), was developed for the in-depth analysis of 50 batches Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. The analysis was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient elution system. Baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min. At the same time, on the basis of the 50 batches of samples collected from representative cultivated regions, a novel chromatographic fingerprint was devised by UPLC-PDA, in which 27 common peaks were detected and identified by the developed UPLC-MS/MS method step by step according to fragmentation mechanisms, MS/MS data, standards, and relevant literature. Many active components gave prominent [M - H] ions in the ESI mass spectra. These components include anthraquinones, sennosides, stilbenes, glucose gallates, naphthalenes, and catechins. Furthermore, based on the information of these Radix et Rhizoma Rhei components, and further combined with discriminant analysis, a novel discriminant analysis equation (DAE) was established for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei for the first time.

Open access

Summary

In the present paper, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed both for quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb for quality control. Under the optimized HPLC conditions, seven bioactive compounds including rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, luteoloside, tiliroside, apigenin, kaempferol, and agrimonolide were determined simultaneously. For fingerprint analysis, 11 common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 16 different samples collected from different origins in China. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to evaluate the variation of the raw materials. This is the first report of using a simple method for quality control of A. pilosa Ledeb through multi-component determination and chromatographic fingerprint analysis to the best of our knowledge.

Open access